Gasoline replacement with alternative non-fossil fuels compatible with existing units is widely promoted around the world to reduce the dependency on oil-based products by adopting domestic renewable sources. In this context, the possibility to obtain bio-alcohols from non-edible residues of food and plants is particularly attractive for gasoline replacement in SI (Spark Ignition) engines. Such bio-fuels are characterized by higher laminar flame speed (LFS) and octane rating, resulting in improved thermal efficiency and reduced regulated emissions. Low-carbon alcohols (e.g. ethanol) are disadvantageous as gasoline replacement due to poor energy density and high corrosive action on distribution pipelines, whereas high-carbon ones (e.g. n-butanol) are particularly promising candidates thanks to the physical properties and the energy density closer to those of gasoline. High latent heat of vaporization and low saturation pressure are the most relevant weaknesses of n-butanol related to gasoline replacement in DISI (Direct Injection SI) power units. On equal injection pressure and phasing, the slow evaporation rate of n-butanol leads to poor mixture preparation and larger fuel deposits. In particular, this is emphasized by low charge and wall temperatures during part load operation, reducing combustion efficiency and promoting the formation of pollutant particles. Split injection is a promising strategy to improve charge preparation contemporary reducing fuel deposits and improving mixture homogeneity, mostly for low-evaporating fuels. In the present work different split injection strategies are tested in an optically accessible SI engine fueled with n-butanol and simulated through CFD with the aim of identifying trends and understanding the root causes behind measured behaviors. CFD simulations help in understanding changes in charge stratification using different injection strategies, allowing to explain both combustion behavior and soot formation tendency from the analysis of fuel distribution. Mixture quality in the spark region and the presence of very rich mixture pockets in the combustion chamber are identified as the most critical aspects that should be optimized when changing the injection strategy; this in turn contributes to avoid slow burn rates or excessive soot production during operation with low evaporating fuels such as n-butanol. A strong correlation between diffusive flames and rich mixture pockets is found in terms of both location and intensity, proving the first order role of fuel deposits formation and mixture homogenization on both combustion development and soot formation.
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Titolo:||Experimental and numerical study on the adoption of split injection strategies to improve air-butanol mixture formation in a DISI optical engine|
|Autore/i:||Breda, S.; D'Orrico, F.; Berni, F.; D'Adamo, A.; Fontanesi, S.; Irimescu, A.; Merola, S. S.|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.01.111|
|Codice identificativo ISI:||WOS:000459431800013|
|Codice identificativo Scopus:||2-s2.0-85060476101|
|Citazione:||Experimental and numerical study on the adoption of split injection strategies to improve air-butanol mixture formation in a DISI optical engine / Breda, S.; D'Orrico, F.; Berni, F.; D'Adamo, A.; Fontanesi, S.; Irimescu, A.; Merola, S. S.. - In: FUEL. - ISSN 0016-2361. - 243(2019), pp. 104-124.|
|Tipologia||Articolo su rivista|
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