In the present study we investigated the changes of plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and tissue lipids that occur during the late embryonic life (5 days before hatching) and the postnatal period (0, 2, 7, 14, and 30 days after hatching) of the chick. The chick emerges from the egg with extreme hypercholesterolemia associated with a high level of cholesterol-rich VLDL + IDL. The density gradient profile of plasma lipoproteins showed that the concentrations of VLDL + IDL and LDL decreased during the first week of postnatal life, whereas HDL concentration increased sharply around hatching and remained stable afterwards. All plasma lipoprotein classes of the newborn chick (2 days from hatching) were enriched in cholesterol and cholesteryl esters; 2 weeks after hatching, the relative amount of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters decreased. In the newborn chick, plasma VLDL + IDL consisted of two populations of cholesteryl ester-rich lipoproteins: the main one (designated apoB-VLDL) contained apoB and no apoA-I; the other (designated apoA-I-VLDL) contained predominantly apoA-I. In the newborn chick there was an accumulation of free and esterified cholesterol in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the skeletal muscle. These cholesterol deposits were depleted 2 to 7 days after hatching. The depletion in skeletal muscle was preceded by and associated with a striking increase in the synthesis of apoA-I in this tissue, as demonstrated by immunological methods and apoA-I mRNA measurements. In addition, apoA-I-containing HDL were secreted in vitro by explants of skeletal muscle of the newborn chick. The synthesis of apoA-I in the skeletal muscle decreased to the level found in the adult animal 1 week after hatching. It is likely that the rise of HDL and apoA-I in plasma observed 1-2 days after hatching reflects the production of apoA-I-containing HDL by skeletal muscle. We suggest that the cholesterol overload in skeletal muscle might stimulate the production of apoA-I which, in turn, would promote the removal of cholesterol from this tissue. The hypothesis that metabolic stimuli play a role in inducing apoA-I synthesis in skeletal muscle is supported by the observation that feeding the newborn chick a diet rich in proteins and lipids and free of carbohydrates delays the fall of apoA-I mRNA which normally occurs 1 week after hatching

Plasma lipoproteins, tissue cholesterol overload, and skeletal muscle apolipoprotein A-I synthesis in the developing chick / Tarugi, Patrizia Maria; Reggiani, D; Ottaviani, Enzo; Ferrari, S; Tiozzo, Roberta; CALANDRA BUONAURA, Sebastiano. - In: JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH. - ISSN 0022-2275. - STAMPA. - 30:(1989), pp. 9-22.

Plasma lipoproteins, tissue cholesterol overload, and skeletal muscle apolipoprotein A-I synthesis in the developing chick.

TARUGI, Patrizia Maria;OTTAVIANI, Enzo;TIOZZO, Roberta;CALANDRA BUONAURA, Sebastiano
1989-01-01

Abstract

In the present study we investigated the changes of plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and tissue lipids that occur during the late embryonic life (5 days before hatching) and the postnatal period (0, 2, 7, 14, and 30 days after hatching) of the chick. The chick emerges from the egg with extreme hypercholesterolemia associated with a high level of cholesterol-rich VLDL + IDL. The density gradient profile of plasma lipoproteins showed that the concentrations of VLDL + IDL and LDL decreased during the first week of postnatal life, whereas HDL concentration increased sharply around hatching and remained stable afterwards. All plasma lipoprotein classes of the newborn chick (2 days from hatching) were enriched in cholesterol and cholesteryl esters; 2 weeks after hatching, the relative amount of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters decreased. In the newborn chick, plasma VLDL + IDL consisted of two populations of cholesteryl ester-rich lipoproteins: the main one (designated apoB-VLDL) contained apoB and no apoA-I; the other (designated apoA-I-VLDL) contained predominantly apoA-I. In the newborn chick there was an accumulation of free and esterified cholesterol in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the skeletal muscle. These cholesterol deposits were depleted 2 to 7 days after hatching. The depletion in skeletal muscle was preceded by and associated with a striking increase in the synthesis of apoA-I in this tissue, as demonstrated by immunological methods and apoA-I mRNA measurements. In addition, apoA-I-containing HDL were secreted in vitro by explants of skeletal muscle of the newborn chick. The synthesis of apoA-I in the skeletal muscle decreased to the level found in the adult animal 1 week after hatching. It is likely that the rise of HDL and apoA-I in plasma observed 1-2 days after hatching reflects the production of apoA-I-containing HDL by skeletal muscle. We suggest that the cholesterol overload in skeletal muscle might stimulate the production of apoA-I which, in turn, would promote the removal of cholesterol from this tissue. The hypothesis that metabolic stimuli play a role in inducing apoA-I synthesis in skeletal muscle is supported by the observation that feeding the newborn chick a diet rich in proteins and lipids and free of carbohydrates delays the fall of apoA-I mRNA which normally occurs 1 week after hatching
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Plasma lipoproteins, tissue cholesterol overload, and skeletal muscle apolipoprotein A-I synthesis in the developing chick / Tarugi, Patrizia Maria; Reggiani, D; Ottaviani, Enzo; Ferrari, S; Tiozzo, Roberta; CALANDRA BUONAURA, Sebastiano. - In: JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH. - ISSN 0022-2275. - STAMPA. - 30:(1989), pp. 9-22.
Tarugi, Patrizia Maria; Reggiani, D; Ottaviani, Enzo; Ferrari, S; Tiozzo, Roberta; CALANDRA BUONAURA, Sebastiano
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