Biomass-based biofuel production represents a pivotal approach to face high energy prices and potential depletion of crude oils reservoirs, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and to enhance a sustainable economy (Zinoviev et al., 2010). Microbial lipids can represent a valuable alternative feedstock for biodiesel production, and a potential solution for a bio-based economy.Nowadays, the production of biodiesel is based mostly on plant oils, even though animal fats, and algal oils can also be used. In particular, soybean, rapeseed, and palm oils are adopted as the major feedstock for biodiesel production. They are produced on agricultural land, opening the debate on the impact of the expansion of bioenergy crop cultures, which displace land from food production. Furthermore, their price restricts the large-scale development of biodiesel to some extent. In order to meet the increasing demand of biodiesel production, other oil sources have been explored. Recently, the development of processes to produce single cell oil (SCO) by using heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms has triggered significant attention (Azocar et al., 2010). These organisms accumulate lipids, mostly consisting of triacylglycerols (TAG), that form the storage fraction of the cell. The occurrence of TAG as reserve compounds is widespread among all eukaryotic organisms such as fungi, plants and animals, whereas it has only rarely been described in bacteria (Meng et al., 2009). In fact, bacteria generally accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates as storage compound and only few bacterial species, belonging to the actinobacterial genera Mycobacterium, Streptomyces, Rhodococcus and Nocardia produce relevant amounts of lipids (Alvarez & Steinbuchel, 2002).Among heterotrophic microorgansisms, oleaginous fungi, including both molds and yeasts, are increasingly been reported as good TAG producers. This chapter will focus on current knowledge advances in their metabolism, physiology, and in the result achieved in strain improvement, process engineering and raw material exploitation.
Getting lipids for biodiesel production from oleaginous fungi / Rossi, Maddalena; Amaretti, Alberto; Raimondi, Stefano; Leonardi, Alan. - STAMPA. - (2011), pp. 71-92.
|Data di pubblicazione:||2011|
|Titolo:||Getting lipids for biodiesel production from oleaginous fungi|
|Autore/i:||Rossi, Maddalena; Amaretti, Alberto; Raimondi, Stefano; Leonardi, Alan|
|Titolo del libro:||Biodiesel - Feedstocks and Processing Technologies|
|Editore:||InTech - Open Access Publisher|
|Citazione:||Getting lipids for biodiesel production from oleaginous fungi / Rossi, Maddalena; Amaretti, Alberto; Raimondi, Stefano; Leonardi, Alan. - STAMPA. - (2011), pp. 71-92.|
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