Herein, we investigated the stability and bioaccessibility of phenolics in differently cooked red-skinned onion (RSO) and consequently their impact on the gut microbiota and metabolism of phenolics. In fact, the different processes used to cook vegetables can modify and re-arrange the molecular profiles of bioactive compounds, such as phenolics in phenolic-rich vegetables, such as RSO. Fried and grilled RSO were compared to raw RSO and a blank control and subjected to oro-gastro-intestinal digestion and subsequent colonic fermentation. For upper gut digestion, the INFOGEST protocol was used, and for lower gut fermentation, a short-term batch model, namely, MICODE (multi-unit in vitro colon gut model), was employed. During the process, phenolic compound profile (through high-resolution mass spectrometry) and colon microbiomics (qPCR of 14 core taxa) analyses were performed. According to the results, the degradation driven by the colon microbiota of RSO flavonols resulted in the accumulation of three main metabolites, i.e., 3-(3 '-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, 3-(3 '-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid and 3-(3 ',4 '-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid. Also, colonic fermentation of raw onions resulted in a substantial increase in beneficial taxa, which was larger compared to the heat-treated onions, particularly Lactobacillales and beneficial clostridia. Also, a higher level of inhibition of opportunistic bacteria was seen for the raw onion samples, namely, Clostridium perfringens group and Escherichia coli. Thus, our results showed that RSO, and especially the raw one, is an excellent dietary source of flavonols that are strongly metabolized by gut bacteria and can positively modulate the gut microbiota. Although additional in vivo studies are necessary, this work is one of the first to explore how RSO processed with different cooking methods can differently impact the phenolic metabolism and microbiota composition in the large intestine of humans, fine-tuning the antioxidant nature of foods.

Impact of cooking methods of red-skinned onion on metabolic transformation of phenolic compounds and gut microbiota changes / Cattivelli, A.; Nissen, L.; Casciano, F.; Tagliazucchi, D.; Gianotti, A.. - In: FOOD & FUNCTION. - ISSN 2042-650X. - 14:8(2023), pp. 3509-3525. [10.1039/d3fo00085k]

Impact of cooking methods of red-skinned onion on metabolic transformation of phenolic compounds and gut microbiota changes

Cattivelli A.;Tagliazucchi D.;
2023

Abstract

Herein, we investigated the stability and bioaccessibility of phenolics in differently cooked red-skinned onion (RSO) and consequently their impact on the gut microbiota and metabolism of phenolics. In fact, the different processes used to cook vegetables can modify and re-arrange the molecular profiles of bioactive compounds, such as phenolics in phenolic-rich vegetables, such as RSO. Fried and grilled RSO were compared to raw RSO and a blank control and subjected to oro-gastro-intestinal digestion and subsequent colonic fermentation. For upper gut digestion, the INFOGEST protocol was used, and for lower gut fermentation, a short-term batch model, namely, MICODE (multi-unit in vitro colon gut model), was employed. During the process, phenolic compound profile (through high-resolution mass spectrometry) and colon microbiomics (qPCR of 14 core taxa) analyses were performed. According to the results, the degradation driven by the colon microbiota of RSO flavonols resulted in the accumulation of three main metabolites, i.e., 3-(3 '-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, 3-(3 '-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid and 3-(3 ',4 '-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid. Also, colonic fermentation of raw onions resulted in a substantial increase in beneficial taxa, which was larger compared to the heat-treated onions, particularly Lactobacillales and beneficial clostridia. Also, a higher level of inhibition of opportunistic bacteria was seen for the raw onion samples, namely, Clostridium perfringens group and Escherichia coli. Thus, our results showed that RSO, and especially the raw one, is an excellent dietary source of flavonols that are strongly metabolized by gut bacteria and can positively modulate the gut microbiota. Although additional in vivo studies are necessary, this work is one of the first to explore how RSO processed with different cooking methods can differently impact the phenolic metabolism and microbiota composition in the large intestine of humans, fine-tuning the antioxidant nature of foods.
2023
14
8
3509
3525
Impact of cooking methods of red-skinned onion on metabolic transformation of phenolic compounds and gut microbiota changes / Cattivelli, A.; Nissen, L.; Casciano, F.; Tagliazucchi, D.; Gianotti, A.. - In: FOOD & FUNCTION. - ISSN 2042-650X. - 14:8(2023), pp. 3509-3525. [10.1039/d3fo00085k]
Cattivelli, A.; Nissen, L.; Casciano, F.; Tagliazucchi, D.; Gianotti, A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1309887
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