Background and objectives: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by two dimensions: inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity. ADHD may be the result of complex interactions between genetic, biological and environmental factors possibly including fluoride exposure. Materials and methods: A literature search was performed on 31 March 2023 in the following databases: PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. We defined the following inclusion criteria according to the PECOS statement: a healthy child and adolescent population (P), fluoride exposure of any type (E), comparison with low or null exposure (C), ADHD spectrum disorder (O), and ecological, cross-sectional, case-control and cohort studies (S). Results: We found eight eligible records corresponding to seven different studies investigating the effect of fluoride exposure on children and adolescents. One study had a cohort design and one a case-control one, while five were cross-sectional. Only three studies applied validated questionnaires for the purpose of ADHD diagnosis. As regards exposure assessment, levels of fluoride in urine and tap water were, respectively used in three and two studies, while two used both. Three studies reported a positive association with ADHD risk, all assessing exposure through fluoride levels. By using urinary fluoride, conversely, a positive correlation with inattention, internalizing symptoms, cognitive and psychosomatic problems was found in three studies, but no relation was found in the other one. Conclusions: The present review suggests that early exposure to fluoride may have neurotoxic effects on neurodevelopment affecting behavioral, cognitive and psychosomatic symptoms related to ADHD diagnosis. However, due to the heterogeneity of the studies included, current evidence does not allow to conclusively confirm that fluoride exposure is specifically linked to ADHD development.

Fluoride Exposure and ADHD: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies / Fiore, Gianluca; Veneri, Federica; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Generali, Luigi; Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso. - In: MEDICINA. - ISSN 1010-660X. - 59:4(2023), pp. 1-12. [10.3390/medicina59040797]

Fluoride Exposure and ADHD: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies

Fiore, Gianluca;Veneri, Federica;Di Lorenzo, Rosaria;Generali, Luigi;Vinceti, Marco;Filippini, Tommaso
2023

Abstract

Background and objectives: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by two dimensions: inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity. ADHD may be the result of complex interactions between genetic, biological and environmental factors possibly including fluoride exposure. Materials and methods: A literature search was performed on 31 March 2023 in the following databases: PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. We defined the following inclusion criteria according to the PECOS statement: a healthy child and adolescent population (P), fluoride exposure of any type (E), comparison with low or null exposure (C), ADHD spectrum disorder (O), and ecological, cross-sectional, case-control and cohort studies (S). Results: We found eight eligible records corresponding to seven different studies investigating the effect of fluoride exposure on children and adolescents. One study had a cohort design and one a case-control one, while five were cross-sectional. Only three studies applied validated questionnaires for the purpose of ADHD diagnosis. As regards exposure assessment, levels of fluoride in urine and tap water were, respectively used in three and two studies, while two used both. Three studies reported a positive association with ADHD risk, all assessing exposure through fluoride levels. By using urinary fluoride, conversely, a positive correlation with inattention, internalizing symptoms, cognitive and psychosomatic problems was found in three studies, but no relation was found in the other one. Conclusions: The present review suggests that early exposure to fluoride may have neurotoxic effects on neurodevelopment affecting behavioral, cognitive and psychosomatic symptoms related to ADHD diagnosis. However, due to the heterogeneity of the studies included, current evidence does not allow to conclusively confirm that fluoride exposure is specifically linked to ADHD development.
2023
59
4
1
12
Fluoride Exposure and ADHD: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies / Fiore, Gianluca; Veneri, Federica; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Generali, Luigi; Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso. - In: MEDICINA. - ISSN 1010-660X. - 59:4(2023), pp. 1-12. [10.3390/medicina59040797]
Fiore, Gianluca; Veneri, Federica; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Generali, Luigi; Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1305510
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