It is estimated that Helicobacter pylori infects the stomachs of over 50% of the world's population and if not treated may cause chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric B-cell lymphoma. The aim of this study was to enhance the mucosal and systemic immune responses against the H. pylori antigens cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) and neutrophil-activating protein (NAP), through combinations of mucosal and systemic immunizations in female BALB/c mice. We found that oral or intranasal (i.n.) followed by i.m. immunizations induced significantly higher serum titres against NAP and CagA compared to i.n. alone, oral alone, i.m. alone, i.m. followed by i.n. or i.m. followed by oral immunizations. However, only oral followed by i.m. immunizations induced anti-NAP antibody-secreting cells in the stomach. Moreover, mucosal immunizations alone or in combination with i.m., but not i.m. immunizations alone, induced mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses in faeces. Any single route or combination of immunization routes with NAP and CagA preferentially induced antigen-specific splenic interleukin-4-secreting cells and far fewer interferon-γ-secreting cells in the spleen. Moreover, i.n. immunizations alone or in combination with i.m. immunizations induced predominantly serum IgG1 and far less serum IgG2a. Importantly, we found that while both i.n. and i.m. recall immunizations induced similar levels of serum antibody responses, mucosal IgA responses in faeces were only achieved through i.n. recall immunization. Collectively, our data show that mucosal followed by systemic immunization significantly enhanced local and systemic immune responses and that i.n. recall immunization is required to induce both mucosal and systemic memory type responses.
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|Anno di pubblicazione:||2003|
|Titolo:||Enhanced mucosal and systemic immune responses to Helicobacter pylori antigens through mucosal priming followed by systemic boosting immunizaztion|
|Autori:||M. VAJDY; M. SINGH; M. UGOZZOLI; M. BRIONES; E. SOENAWAN; L. CUADRA; J. KAZZAZ; P. RUGGIERO; S. PEPPOLONI; F. NORELLI; G. DEL GIUDICE; D. O'HAGAN|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo su rivista|
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