Background: Research suggests that microaggressions detrimentally impact the mental health of members of marginalized social groups. Aims: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the exposure to microaggressions and related implications on mental health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex, and Queer (LGBTIQ) people. Method: Medline, Scopus, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE were searched until January 2023. Studies reporting data on the exposure to microaggressions toward LGBTIQ people were identified. Meta-analyses of rates of exposure to microaggression and of the association between microaggressions and mental health outcomes were based on odds ratio (OR) and standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), estimated through inverse variance models with random effects. Results: The review process led to the selection of 17 studies, involving a total of 9036 LGBTIQ people, of which 6827 identifying as cisgenders, and 492 as heterosexuals, were included in the quantitative synthesis. Overall, LGBTIQ people showed an increased risk of microaggression (SMD: 0.89; 95% CI [0.28, 1.50]), with Transgender people having the highest risk (OR: 10.0; 95% CI [3.08, 32.4]). Microaggression resulted associated with risk of depression (SMD: 0.21; 95% CI [0.05, 0.37]), anxiety (SMD: 0.29; 95% CI [0.17, 0.40]), suicide attempts (OR: 1.13; 95% CI [1.08, 1.18]), alcohol abuse (OR: 1.32; 95% CI [1.13, 1.54]), but not to suicidal ideation (OR: 1.56; 95% CI [0.64, 3.81]) and cannabis abuse (OR: 1.44; 95% CI [0.82, 2.55]). The quality of the evidence was limited by the small number of studies. Conclusions: LGBTIQ people are at higher risk of microaggressions compared with their cisgender/heterosexual peers, which may lead to mental health consequences. This evidence may contribute to public awareness of LGBTIQ mental health needs and suggest supportive strategies as well as preventive interventions (e.g., supportive programs and destigmatizing efforts) as parts of tailored health-care planning aimed to reduce psychiatric morbidity in this population.
Microaggression toward LGBTIQ people and implications for mental health: A systematic review / Marchi, Mattia; Travascio, Antonio; Uberti, Daniele; De Micheli, Edoardo; Quartaroli, Fabio; Laquatra, Giuseppe; Grenzi, Pietro; Pingani, Luca; Ferrari, Silvia; Fiorillo, Andrea; Converti, Manlio; Pinna, Federica; Amaddeo, Francesco; Ventriglio, Antonio; Mirandola, Massimo; Galeazzi, Gian M. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHIATRY. - ISSN 0020-7640. - (2023), pp. 0-0. [10.1177/00207640231194478]