Lymnaea stagnalis learns and remembers to avoid certain foods when their ingestion is followed by sickness. This rapid, taste-specific, and long-lasting aversion—known as the Garcia effect—can be formed by exposing snails to a novel taste and 1 h later injecting them with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the exposure of snails to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for 1 h before the LPS injection, prevents both the LPS-induced sickness state and the Garcia effect. Here, we investigated novel aspects of this unique form of conditioned taste aversion and its pharmacological regulation. We first explored the transcriptional effects in the snails’ central nervous system induced by the injection with LPS (25 mg), the exposure to ASA (900 nM), as well as their combined presentation in untrained snails. Then, we investigated the behavioral and molecular mechanisms underlying the LPS-induced Garcia effect and its pharmacological regulation by ASA. LPS injection, both alone and during the Garcia effect procedure, upregulated the expression levels of immune- and stress-related targets. This upregulation was prevented by pre-exposure to ASA. While LPS alone did not affect the expression levels of neuroplasticity genes, its combination with the conditioning procedure resulted in their significant upregulation and memory formation for the Garcia effect.

LPS-Induced Garcia Effect and Its Pharmacological Regulation Mediated by Acetylsalicylic Acid: Behavioral and Transcriptional Evidence / Rivi, V.; Batabyal, A.; Lukowiak, K.; Benatti, C.; Rigillo, G.; Tascedda, F.; Blom, J. M. C.. - In: BIOLOGY. - ISSN 2079-7737. - 12:8(2023), pp. 1100-1117. [10.3390/biology12081100]

LPS-Induced Garcia Effect and Its Pharmacological Regulation Mediated by Acetylsalicylic Acid: Behavioral and Transcriptional Evidence

Rivi V.;Lukowiak K.;Benatti C.;Rigillo G.;Tascedda F.;Blom J. M. C.
2023

Abstract

Lymnaea stagnalis learns and remembers to avoid certain foods when their ingestion is followed by sickness. This rapid, taste-specific, and long-lasting aversion—known as the Garcia effect—can be formed by exposing snails to a novel taste and 1 h later injecting them with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the exposure of snails to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for 1 h before the LPS injection, prevents both the LPS-induced sickness state and the Garcia effect. Here, we investigated novel aspects of this unique form of conditioned taste aversion and its pharmacological regulation. We first explored the transcriptional effects in the snails’ central nervous system induced by the injection with LPS (25 mg), the exposure to ASA (900 nM), as well as their combined presentation in untrained snails. Then, we investigated the behavioral and molecular mechanisms underlying the LPS-induced Garcia effect and its pharmacological regulation by ASA. LPS injection, both alone and during the Garcia effect procedure, upregulated the expression levels of immune- and stress-related targets. This upregulation was prevented by pre-exposure to ASA. While LPS alone did not affect the expression levels of neuroplasticity genes, its combination with the conditioning procedure resulted in their significant upregulation and memory formation for the Garcia effect.
2023
12
8
1100
1117
LPS-Induced Garcia Effect and Its Pharmacological Regulation Mediated by Acetylsalicylic Acid: Behavioral and Transcriptional Evidence / Rivi, V.; Batabyal, A.; Lukowiak, K.; Benatti, C.; Rigillo, G.; Tascedda, F.; Blom, J. M. C.. - In: BIOLOGY. - ISSN 2079-7737. - 12:8(2023), pp. 1100-1117. [10.3390/biology12081100]
Rivi, V.; Batabyal, A.; Lukowiak, K.; Benatti, C.; Rigillo, G.; Tascedda, F.; Blom, J. M. C.
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