A multi-instrumental approach combining highly sensitive Synchrotron Radiation-based techniques was used to provide information on the real composition of a dry black ink powder found in a bronze inkwell of the first century AD. The presence of Pb, Cu and Fe in the powder, revealed by XRF and ICP-OES data, leads to raise several hypotheses on their origin. The inkpot and its lid were also investigated by Hand-Held XRF, revealing a bronze alloy (Cu-Sn) with a certain amount of Fe and Pb. The lid was found to be particularly enriched in lead. XRPD, XAS and FTIR measurements showed a substantial presence of silicates and common clay minerals in the ink along with cerussite and malachite, Pb and Cu bearing-carbonates, respectively. These evidences support the hypothesis of an important contamination of the ink sample by the burial environment (soil) and the presence of degradation products of the bronze inkpot. The combined use of IR, Raman, and GC-MS evidenced that the black ink is mainly composed of amorphous carbon deriving from the combustion of organic material mixed with a natural binding agent, Arabic gum.

A multidisciplinary study unveils the nature of a Roman ink of the I century AD / Sibilia, M.; Stani, C.; Gigli, L.; Pollastri, S.; Migliori, A.; D'Amico, F.; Schmid, C.; Licen, S.; Crosera, M.; Adami, G.; Barbieri, P.; Plaisier, J. R.; Aquilanti, G.; Vaccari, L.; Buson, S.; Gonzato, F.. - In: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. - ISSN 2045-2322. - 11:1(2021), pp. N/A-N/A. [10.1038/s41598-021-86288-x]

A multidisciplinary study unveils the nature of a Roman ink of the I century AD

Pollastri S.;
2021

Abstract

A multi-instrumental approach combining highly sensitive Synchrotron Radiation-based techniques was used to provide information on the real composition of a dry black ink powder found in a bronze inkwell of the first century AD. The presence of Pb, Cu and Fe in the powder, revealed by XRF and ICP-OES data, leads to raise several hypotheses on their origin. The inkpot and its lid were also investigated by Hand-Held XRF, revealing a bronze alloy (Cu-Sn) with a certain amount of Fe and Pb. The lid was found to be particularly enriched in lead. XRPD, XAS and FTIR measurements showed a substantial presence of silicates and common clay minerals in the ink along with cerussite and malachite, Pb and Cu bearing-carbonates, respectively. These evidences support the hypothesis of an important contamination of the ink sample by the burial environment (soil) and the presence of degradation products of the bronze inkpot. The combined use of IR, Raman, and GC-MS evidenced that the black ink is mainly composed of amorphous carbon deriving from the combustion of organic material mixed with a natural binding agent, Arabic gum.
2021
11
1
N/A
N/A
A multidisciplinary study unveils the nature of a Roman ink of the I century AD / Sibilia, M.; Stani, C.; Gigli, L.; Pollastri, S.; Migliori, A.; D'Amico, F.; Schmid, C.; Licen, S.; Crosera, M.; Adami, G.; Barbieri, P.; Plaisier, J. R.; Aquilanti, G.; Vaccari, L.; Buson, S.; Gonzato, F.. - In: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. - ISSN 2045-2322. - 11:1(2021), pp. N/A-N/A. [10.1038/s41598-021-86288-x]
Sibilia, M.; Stani, C.; Gigli, L.; Pollastri, S.; Migliori, A.; D'Amico, F.; Schmid, C.; Licen, S.; Crosera, M.; Adami, G.; Barbieri, P.; Plaisier, J. R.; Aquilanti, G.; Vaccari, L.; Buson, S.; Gonzato, F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1307512
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