In this paper an experimental investigation on the heating experienced by the fuel when it expands through the calibrated orifices of a diesel injector is carried out. Five different geometries corresponding to the control orifices of two different commercial common-rail solenoid injectors were tested. An experimental facility was used to impose a continuous flow through the orifices by controlling the pressures both upstream and downstream of the restriction. Fuel temperature was controlled prior to the orifice inlet and measured after the outlet at a location where the flow is already slowed down. Results were compared to the theoretical temperature increase under the assumption of adiabatic flow (i.e. isenthalpic process). The comparison points out that this assumption allows to predict the fuel temperature change in a reasonable way for four of the five geometries as long as the pressure difference across the orifice is high enough. The deviations for low imposed pressure differences and the remaining orifice are explained due to the low Reynolds numbers (i.e. flow velocities) induced in these cases, which significantly increase the residence time of a fuel particle in the duct, thus enabling heat transfer with the surrounding atmosphere. A dimensionless parameter to quantify the proneness of the flow through an orifice to exchange heat with the surroundings has been theoretically derived and calculated for the different geometries tested, allowing to establish a boundary that defines beforehand the conditions from which heat losses to the ambient can be neglected when dealing with the internal flow along a diesel injector. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Experimental assessment of the fuel heating and the validity of the assumption of adiabatic flow through the internal orifices of a diesel injector / Salvador, F. J.; Gimeno, J.; Carreres, M.; Crialesi-Esposito, M.. - In: FUEL. - ISSN 0016-2361. - 188:(2017), pp. 442-451. [10.1016/j.fuel.2016.10.061]