Since the late 1950s, blood $p$ CO2 can be measured by using electrodes and, more recently, also by using point-of-care instruments such as blood gas and chemistry analyzers. Nevertheless, nowadays no measurement method has succeeded in providing an economic, reliable, and accurate estimate of the blood- $p$ CO2 to be routinely used for the monitoring of extracorporeal (blood) circulation (ECC) treatments. Indeed, blood is a very complex biological matrix composed of several different constituents, thus apart from a limited maximum-admitted measurement error (about some mmHg) and a quite wide measuring interval (about [20, 100] mmHg), the measuring systems have to provide significant selectivity taking hemocompatibility and safety for the patient as a primary concern. In this article, we propose and demonstrate a measuring instrument consisting of a low-cost and disposable fluorescent pco-sensor that can be inserted in series with the bloodline, and a nondisposable optical head that contactless reads the sensor. The proposed measuring system is intrinsically safe for the patient, has adequate metrological performance, avoids blood sampling and the related issues, and may allow to comply with cost requirements. Preliminary tests, conducted simulating a 6-h ECC treatment by using bovine blood, revealed deviations from the reference measuring instrument of less than ±4 mmHg, while the blood- $p$ CO2 was varied in the range [20, 100] mmHg.
A Measuring Instrument for In-Line and Real-Time Measurement of Blood- pCO2in Extracorporeal-Circulation / Cattini, S.; Truzzi, S.; Accorsi, L.; Rovati, L.. - In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT. - ISSN 0018-9456. - 70:(2021), pp. 1-9. [10.1109/TIM.2020.3017030]