Background Multi-target approaches are necessary to properly analyze or modify the function of a biochemical pathway or a protein family. An example of such a problem is the repurposing of the known human anti-cancer drugs, antifolates, as selective anti-parasitic agents. This requires considering a set of experimentally validated protein targets in the folate pathway of major pathogenic trypanosomatid parasites and humans: (i) the primary parasite on-targets: pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1) (absent in humans) and bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR–TS), (ii) the primary off-targets: human DHFR and TS, and (iii) the secondary on-target: human folate receptor β, a folate/antifolate transporter. Methods We computationally compared the structural, dynamic and physico-chemical properties of the targets. We based our analysis on available inhibitory activity and crystallographic data, including a crystal structure of the bifunctional T. cruzi DHFR–TS with tetrahydrofolate bound determined in this work. Due to the low sequence and structural similarity of the targets analyzed, we employed a mapping of binding pockets based on the known common ligands, folate and methotrexate. Results Our analysis provides a set of practical strategies for the design of selective trypanosomatid folate pathway inhibitors, which are supported by enzyme inhibition measurements and crystallographic structures. Conclusions The ligand-based comparative computational mapping of protein binding pockets provides a basis for repurposing of anti-folates and the design of new anti-trypanosmatid agents. General significance Apart from the target-based discovery of selective compounds, our approach may be also applied for protein engineering or analyzing evolutionary relationships in protein families.

Comparative mapping of on-targets and off-targets for the discovery of anti-trypanosomatid folate pathway inhibitors / Panecka-Hofman, Joanna; Pöhner, Ina; Spyrakis, Francesca; Zeppelin, Talia; Di Pisa, Flavio; Dello Iacono, Lucia; Bonucci, Alessio; Quotadamo, Antonio; Venturelli, Alberto; Mangani, Stefano; Costi, Maria Paola; Wade, Rebecca C.. - In: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-GENERAL SUBJECTS. - ISSN 0304-4165. - 1861:12(2017), pp. 3215-3230. [10.1016/j.bbagen.2017.09.012]

Comparative mapping of on-targets and off-targets for the discovery of anti-trypanosomatid folate pathway inhibitors

Spyrakis, Francesca;Quotadamo, Antonio;Venturelli, Alberto;Costi, Maria Paola;
2017

Abstract

Background Multi-target approaches are necessary to properly analyze or modify the function of a biochemical pathway or a protein family. An example of such a problem is the repurposing of the known human anti-cancer drugs, antifolates, as selective anti-parasitic agents. This requires considering a set of experimentally validated protein targets in the folate pathway of major pathogenic trypanosomatid parasites and humans: (i) the primary parasite on-targets: pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1) (absent in humans) and bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR–TS), (ii) the primary off-targets: human DHFR and TS, and (iii) the secondary on-target: human folate receptor β, a folate/antifolate transporter. Methods We computationally compared the structural, dynamic and physico-chemical properties of the targets. We based our analysis on available inhibitory activity and crystallographic data, including a crystal structure of the bifunctional T. cruzi DHFR–TS with tetrahydrofolate bound determined in this work. Due to the low sequence and structural similarity of the targets analyzed, we employed a mapping of binding pockets based on the known common ligands, folate and methotrexate. Results Our analysis provides a set of practical strategies for the design of selective trypanosomatid folate pathway inhibitors, which are supported by enzyme inhibition measurements and crystallographic structures. Conclusions The ligand-based comparative computational mapping of protein binding pockets provides a basis for repurposing of anti-folates and the design of new anti-trypanosmatid agents. General significance Apart from the target-based discovery of selective compounds, our approach may be also applied for protein engineering or analyzing evolutionary relationships in protein families.
20-set-2017
1861
12
3215
3230
Comparative mapping of on-targets and off-targets for the discovery of anti-trypanosomatid folate pathway inhibitors / Panecka-Hofman, Joanna; Pöhner, Ina; Spyrakis, Francesca; Zeppelin, Talia; Di Pisa, Flavio; Dello Iacono, Lucia; Bonucci, Alessio; Quotadamo, Antonio; Venturelli, Alberto; Mangani, Stefano; Costi, Maria Paola; Wade, Rebecca C.. - In: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-GENERAL SUBJECTS. - ISSN 0304-4165. - 1861:12(2017), pp. 3215-3230. [10.1016/j.bbagen.2017.09.012]
Panecka-Hofman, Joanna; Pöhner, Ina; Spyrakis, Francesca; Zeppelin, Talia; Di Pisa, Flavio; Dello Iacono, Lucia; Bonucci, Alessio; Quotadamo, Antonio; Venturelli, Alberto; Mangani, Stefano; Costi, Maria Paola; Wade, Rebecca C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11380/1152299
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