Sexual reproduction increases genetic variation, which is strongly advantageous under harsh environmental conditions, as it allows natural selection to proceed more effectively. The yeasts of the Zygosaccharomyces rouxii complex are relevant in food elaboration and spoilage due to their ability to cope with low water activity environments and are characterized by gene copy number variation, genome instability, and aneuploidy/allodiploidy (Solieri et al. 2013). The mating-type locus (MAT) is a hotspot for chromosome rearrangement in yeasts. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of sex determinants, including MAT loci and HO endonuclease in Zygosaccharomyces sapae diploid strain ABT301T, belonging to the Z. rouxii complex. We cloned these genes through a DNA walking strategy and a characterization of the flanking regions, while the chromosome assignment was performed combining Southern blotting and PFGE-karyotyping. We identified three divergent mating type-like (MTL) α-idiomorph sequences, designated as ZsMTLα copies 1, 2, and 3, which encoded homologues of Z. rouxii CBS 732T MATα2 (aa sequence identity from 67.0 to 99.5%) and MATα1 (identity 81.5-99.5%). Cloning of MATa-idiomorph yielded one ZsMTLa locus encoding two Z. rouxii-like proteins, MATa1 and MATa2. ABT301T possesses two divergent HO genes encoding distinct endonucleases. Based on the cloned ZsMTLα and ZsMTLa idiomorphs flanking regions we discovered that Z. sapae ABT301T displays an aααα genotype lacking the HMR silent cassette. Additionally, four putative HML cassettes were identified, two harbouring the ZsMTLα copy 1 and the remaining containing ZsMTLα copies 2 and 3. In conclusion, our results show that the mating-type switching is responsible for hyper-mutation in Z. rouxii complex. The ectopic recombination underlying this process is an error-prone mechanism, which represents a possible source of genetic variation providing yeast progeny with phenotypic variability and adaptation to hostile environments.
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|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Autori:||Bizzarri, Melissa; Verspohl, Alexandra; Giudici, Paolo; Cassanelli, Stefano; Solieri, Lisa|
|Titolo:||Ectopic recombination in sex-determination system as a source of genetic variation in the diploid yeast Zygosaccharomyces sapae.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Abstract in Atti di Convegno|
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