Last generation spark ignition (SI) engines are characterized by a simultaneous reduction of the engine displacement and an increase of the brake power; such conflicting targets are achieved through the adoption of several techniques such as turbocharging, direct fuel injection, variable valve timing and variable port lengths. This design approach, referred to as “engine downsizing”, leads to a remarkable increase in the thermal loads acting on the engine components facing the combustion chamber. Hence, an accurate evaluation of the thermal field is of primary importance in order to avoid thermo-mechanical failures. Moreover, the correct evaluation of the temperature distribution improves the prediction of point-wise abnormal combustion onset. Due to the complexity of the experimental measurement of instantaneous gas-to-wall heat fluxes, 3D-CFD simulations of the in-cylinder processes are a fundamental tool to evaluate not only the global amount of heat transferred to the combustion chamber walls, but also its point-wise distribution. Several heat transfer models and thermal laws of the wall are available in literature, most of which were developed in the past decades and calibrated against experiments carried out in research laboratories at relatively low-load/low-speed engine operations. In the present paper two widely adopted heat transfer models are proved to be effective at such conditions to predict gas-to-wall heat flux, as demonstrated by their application to the well-known GM pancake engine test case. However, despite such comforting results, they manifest evident shortages when used for highly-charged/highly-downsized current production SI engines, since operated at specific thermal loads and engine speeds very different from the above experiments. In particular, overestimations of the wall heat transfer predicted by such thermal laws of the wall are pointed out thanks to experimental engine thermal surveys and temperature measurements on four current production engines. Therefore an alternative heat transfer model is proposed by the authors and tested on such currently made turbocharged SI engines, operated at different conditions. Compared to the existing models differences are pointed out, especially in terms of law of the wall expression. Experimental engine thermal survey and point-wise temperature measurements are used to validate the numerical heat flux. In particular the increased predictive capabilities of the 3D-CFD gas-to-wall heat transfer simulations are revealed both in terms of global thermal balance and temperature distribution of the metal for all the investigated engines. In fact model adoption in a combined in-cylinder/CHT (Conjugate Heat Transfer) simulation loop leads to a correct characterization of the thermal status of all the analyzed engines. Finally, alternative model adoption for the investigated current production high specific power DISI turbocharged engines operated at full load and high revving speed is critically motivated adopting the “isothermicity parameter” ζ which represents an indication of the thermal state of the boundary layer, being a characteristic scale of the ratio between gas and wall temperatures.
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|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Titolo:||A modified thermal wall function for the estimation of gas-to-wall heat fluxes in CFD in-cylinder simulations of high performance spark-ignition engines|
|Autori:||Berni, Fabio; Cicalese, Giuseppe; Fontanesi, Stefano|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.01.055|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo su rivista|
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