Besides specific triggering causes, Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves pathophysiological pathways that are common to acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Melanocortins induce neuroprotection in experimental acute neurodegenerative conditions, and low melanocortin levels have been found in occasional studies performed in AD-type dementia patients. Here we investigated the possible neuroprotective role of melanocortins in a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, AD, by using 12-week-old (at the start of the study) triple-transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice harboring human transgenes APP(Swe), PS1(M146V), and tau(P301L). Treatment of 3xTg-AD mice, once daily until the end of the study (30 weeks of age), with the melanocortin analog [Nle(4),D-Phe(7)]-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NDP-alpha-MSH) reduced cerebral cortex/hippocampus phosphorylation/level of all AD-related biomarkers investigated (mediators of amyloid/tau cascade, oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, apoptosis), decreased neuronal loss, induced over-expression of the synaptic activity-dependent gene Zif268, and improved cognitive functions, relative to saline-treated 3xTg-AD mice. Pharmacological blockade of melanocortin MC4 receptors prevented all neuroprotective effects of NDP-alpha-MSH. Our study identifies, for the first time, a class of drugs, MC4 receptor-stimulating melanocortins, that are able to counteract the progression of experimental AD by targeting pathophysiological mechanisms up- and down-stream of beta-amyloid and tau. These data could have important clinical implications. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Melanocortins protect against progression of Alzheimer's disease in triple-transgenic mice by targeting multiple pathophysiological pathways / Giuliani, Daniela; A., Bitto; M., Galantucci; Zaffe, Davide; Ottani, Alessandra; N., Irrera; L., Neri; Cavallini, Gian Maria; D., Altavilla; A. R., Botticelli; F., Squadrito; Guarini, Salvatore. - In: NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING. - ISSN 0197-4580. - STAMPA. - 35:(2014), pp. 537-547. [10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.08.030]

Melanocortins protect against progression of Alzheimer's disease in triple-transgenic mice by targeting multiple pathophysiological pathways

GIULIANI, Daniela;ZAFFE, Davide;OTTANI, Alessandra;CAVALLINI, Gian Maria;GUARINI, Salvatore
2014

Abstract

Besides specific triggering causes, Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves pathophysiological pathways that are common to acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Melanocortins induce neuroprotection in experimental acute neurodegenerative conditions, and low melanocortin levels have been found in occasional studies performed in AD-type dementia patients. Here we investigated the possible neuroprotective role of melanocortins in a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, AD, by using 12-week-old (at the start of the study) triple-transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice harboring human transgenes APP(Swe), PS1(M146V), and tau(P301L). Treatment of 3xTg-AD mice, once daily until the end of the study (30 weeks of age), with the melanocortin analog [Nle(4),D-Phe(7)]-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NDP-alpha-MSH) reduced cerebral cortex/hippocampus phosphorylation/level of all AD-related biomarkers investigated (mediators of amyloid/tau cascade, oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, apoptosis), decreased neuronal loss, induced over-expression of the synaptic activity-dependent gene Zif268, and improved cognitive functions, relative to saline-treated 3xTg-AD mice. Pharmacological blockade of melanocortin MC4 receptors prevented all neuroprotective effects of NDP-alpha-MSH. Our study identifies, for the first time, a class of drugs, MC4 receptor-stimulating melanocortins, that are able to counteract the progression of experimental AD by targeting pathophysiological mechanisms up- and down-stream of beta-amyloid and tau. These data could have important clinical implications. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Melanocortins protect against progression of Alzheimer's disease in triple-transgenic mice by targeting multiple pathophysiological pathways / Giuliani, Daniela; A., Bitto; M., Galantucci; Zaffe, Davide; Ottani, Alessandra; N., Irrera; L., Neri; Cavallini, Gian Maria; D., Altavilla; A. R., Botticelli; F., Squadrito; Guarini, Salvatore. - In: NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING. - ISSN 0197-4580. - STAMPA. - 35:(2014), pp. 537-547. [10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.08.030]
Giuliani, Daniela; A., Bitto; M., Galantucci; Zaffe, Davide; Ottani, Alessandra; N., Irrera; L., Neri; Cavallini, Gian Maria; D., Altavilla; A. R., Botticelli; F., Squadrito; Guarini, Salvatore
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/995128
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