Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. It is categorized into two histological groups that have distinct clinical behaviors, the nonsmall cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and the small cell lung cancer (SCLC). When identified at an early stage, NSCLC is treated by surgical resection. However, patients who undergo surgical resection still have a relative low survival rate, primarily for tumor recurrence. Unfortunately, advances in cytotoxic therapy have reached a plateau and new approaches to treatment are needed together with new and better parameters for more accurate prediction of the outcome and more precise indication of the efficacy of the treatment. Several in vitro studies have examined the role of Clusterin (CLU) in carcinogenesis, lung cancer progression, and response to chemo- and radiotherapy. Studies performed in lung cancer cell lines and animal models showed that CLU is upregulated after exposure to chemo- and radiotherapy. A potential role proposed for the protein is cytoprotective. In vitro, CLU silencing by antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) and small-interfering RNAs (siRNA) directed against CLU mRNA in CLU-rich lung cancer cell lines sensitized cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and decreased their metastatic potential. In vivo, a recent work analyzed the prognostic role of CLU in NSCLC, showing that CLU-positive patients with lung cancer had a better overall survival and disease-free survival than those with CLU-negative tumors. These data are contradictory to the promising in vitro results. From the results of these studies we may hypothesize that in early-stage lung cancers CLU represents a positive biomarker correlating with better overall survival. In advanced patients, already treated with chemo- and radiotherapy, the induction of CLU may confer resistance to the treatments. However, many studies are needed to better understand the role of CLU in early-stage and advanced lung cancers with the aim to discriminate patients and specific local conditions that could benefit for a CLU knocking down treatment.
Clusterin (CLU) and lung cancer / Panico, Francesca; F., Rizzi; Fabbri, Leonardo; S., Bettuzzi; Luppi, Fabrizio. - In: ADVANCES IN CANCER RESEARCH. - ISSN 0065-230X. - STAMPA. - 105:(2009), pp. 63-76. [10.1016/S0065-230X(09)05004-0]