This paper deals with the mechanisms and kinetics of interactions between screen printed and fired PbO layers and ceramic substrates: alumina and beryllia. The interaction with alumina occurs via two main processes: (i) a reaction between PbO and Al2O3 grains, which induces the formation of a crystalline phase, Pb2Al2O5; and (ii) an interdiffusion process involving Pb and the intergranular amorphous phase in the ceramic substrate. This latter process results in a compositional change of the intergranular phase at considerable depths inside the ceramic substrate, as well as in the formation of a high lead glass layer on the substrate surface, Since PbO is not completely reacted, the Pb penetration in the ceramic is diffusion limited (penetration depth w approximate to t(d)(1/2) where t(d) is the reaction time) with an activation energy of 1.20 +/- 0.05 eV. The ceramic microstructure significantly affects the interaction processes.
Interactions between lead oxide and ceramic substrates for thick film technology / Bersani, M; Morten, Bruno; Prudenziati, Maria; Gualtieri, Alessandro. - In: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH. - ISSN 0884-2914. - STAMPA. - 12:(1997), pp. 501-508. [10.1557/JMR.1997.0072]