The optimum use of nitroxides in viable biological systems, including live animals, requires knowledge of the metabolism of nitroxides by major organ systems, especially the liver. We report here details of the metabolism of several prototypic aqueous soluble nitroxides in suspensions of freshly isolated hepatocytes. The general patterns of metabolism were similar to those observed in other types of cells (previous studies have been done principally in cells from tissue culture, such as CHO cells) including the primary initial reaction being reduction to the hydroxylamine, an increased rate of metabolism of some nitroxides in hypoxic cells, faster rates of reduction of nitroxides on six-membered piperidine rings compared to five-membered pyrrolidine rings, and most metabolism being intracellular. Metabolism in hepatocytes differed from other cell lines in having (1) significant reduction in the extracellular medium due to ascorbate that was released from damaged hepatocytes; (2) decreased rates of metabolism in freeze-thawed cells due to damage to subcellular organelles. These results provide much of the data needed to understand the role of the liver in the metabolism of nitroxides by intact animals and explain some previously puzzling results which indicated an apparent unusually high rate of metabolism of a charged nitroxide (Cat1) by hepatocytes. Our results also indicate that the use of freshly isolated cells or tissue homogenates may introduce experimental artifacts in the study of the metabolism of nitroxides
Metabolism of aqueous soluble nitroxides in hepatocytes: effects of cell integrity, oxygen, and structure of nitroxides / Iannone, Anna; H., Hu; Tomasi, Aldo; V., Vannini; H. M., Swartz. - In: BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA. - ISSN 0006-3002. - STAMPA. - 991:(1989), pp. 90-96.