Experimental evidence indicates that small concentrations of inflammatory molecules produced by damaged tissues activate afferent signals through ascending vagus nerve fibers, that act as the sensory arm of an "inflammatory reflex". The subsequent activation of vagal efferent fibers, which represent the motor arm of the inflammatory reflex, rapidly leads to acetylcholine release in organs of the reticuloendothelial system. Acetylcholine interacts with α7 subunit-containing nicotinic receptors in tissue macrophages and other immune cells and rapidly inhibits the synthesis/release of tumor necrosis factor-α and other inflammatory cytokines. This neural anti-inflammatory response called "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" is fast and integrated through the central nervous system. Preclinical studies are in progress, with the aim to develop therapeutic agents able to activate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Melanocortin peptides bearing the adrenocorticotropin/α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone sequences exert a protective and life-saving effect in animals and humans in conditions of circulatory shock. These neuropeptides are likewise protective in other severe hypoxic conditions, such as prolonged respiratory arrest, myocardial ischemia, renal ischemia and ischemic stroke, as well as in experimental heart transplantation. Moreover, experimental evidence indicates that melanocortins reverse circulatory shock, prevent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion damage and exert neuroprotection against ischemic stroke through activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. This action occurs via stimulation of brain melanocortin MC3/MC4 receptors. Investigations that determine the molecular mechanisms of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway activation could help design of superselective activators of this pathway.

Melanocortins and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway / Giuliani, Daniela; Ottani, Alessandra; Altavilla, D; Bazzani, Carla; Squadrito, F; Guarini, Salvatore. - ELETTRONICO. - 681:(2010), pp. 71-87. [10.1007/978-1-4419-6354-3_6]

Melanocortins and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

GIULIANI, Daniela
Project Administration
;
OTTANI, Alessandra;BAZZANI, Carla;GUARINI, Salvatore
2010-01-01

Abstract

Experimental evidence indicates that small concentrations of inflammatory molecules produced by damaged tissues activate afferent signals through ascending vagus nerve fibers, that act as the sensory arm of an "inflammatory reflex". The subsequent activation of vagal efferent fibers, which represent the motor arm of the inflammatory reflex, rapidly leads to acetylcholine release in organs of the reticuloendothelial system. Acetylcholine interacts with α7 subunit-containing nicotinic receptors in tissue macrophages and other immune cells and rapidly inhibits the synthesis/release of tumor necrosis factor-α and other inflammatory cytokines. This neural anti-inflammatory response called "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" is fast and integrated through the central nervous system. Preclinical studies are in progress, with the aim to develop therapeutic agents able to activate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Melanocortin peptides bearing the adrenocorticotropin/α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone sequences exert a protective and life-saving effect in animals and humans in conditions of circulatory shock. These neuropeptides are likewise protective in other severe hypoxic conditions, such as prolonged respiratory arrest, myocardial ischemia, renal ischemia and ischemic stroke, as well as in experimental heart transplantation. Moreover, experimental evidence indicates that melanocortins reverse circulatory shock, prevent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion damage and exert neuroprotection against ischemic stroke through activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. This action occurs via stimulation of brain melanocortin MC3/MC4 receptors. Investigations that determine the molecular mechanisms of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway activation could help design of superselective activators of this pathway.
2010
MELANOCORTINS: MULTIPLE ACTIONS AND THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL
978-1-4419-6353-6
SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN
STATI UNITI D'AMERICA
Melanocortins and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway / Giuliani, Daniela; Ottani, Alessandra; Altavilla, D; Bazzani, Carla; Squadrito, F; Guarini, Salvatore. - ELETTRONICO. - 681:(2010), pp. 71-87. [10.1007/978-1-4419-6354-3_6]
Giuliani, Daniela; Ottani, Alessandra; Altavilla, D; Bazzani, Carla; Squadrito, F; Guarini, Salvatore
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/649105
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