We investigated Legionella and Pseudomonas contamination of hot water in a cross-sectional multicentric survey in Italy. Chemical parameters (hardness, free chlorine, and trace elements) were determined. Legionella spp. were detected in 33 (22.6%) and Pseudomonas spp. in 56 (38.4%) of 146 samples. Some factors associated with Legionella contamination were heater type, tank distance and capacity, water plant age, and mineral content. Pseudomonas presence was influenced by water source, hardness, free chlorine, and temperature. Legionella contamination was associated with a centralized heater, distance from the heater point >10 m, and a water plant >10 years old. Furthermore, zinc levels of <20 mg/L and copper levels of >50 mg/L appeared to be protective against Legionella colonization. Legionella species and serogroups were differently distributed according to heater type, water temperature, and free chlorine, suggesting that Legionella strains may have a different sensibility and resistance to environmental factors and different ecoloqic niches.

Legionella infection risk from domestic hot water / Borella, Paola; M. T., Montagna; V., Romano Spica; S., Stampi; G., Stancanelli; M., Triassi; Neglia, Rachele Giovanna; Marchesi, Isabella; Fantuzzi, Guglielmina; D., Tatò; C., Napoli; G., Quaranta; P., Laurenti; E., Leoni; G., De Luca; C., Ossi; M., Moro; G., Ribera D'Alcalà. - In: EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES. - ISSN 1080-6040. - STAMPA. - 10:3(2004), pp. 457-464. [10.3201/eid1003.020707]

Legionella infection risk from domestic hot water

BORELLA, Paola;NEGLIA, Rachele Giovanna;MARCHESI, Isabella;FANTUZZI, Guglielmina;
2004

Abstract

We investigated Legionella and Pseudomonas contamination of hot water in a cross-sectional multicentric survey in Italy. Chemical parameters (hardness, free chlorine, and trace elements) were determined. Legionella spp. were detected in 33 (22.6%) and Pseudomonas spp. in 56 (38.4%) of 146 samples. Some factors associated with Legionella contamination were heater type, tank distance and capacity, water plant age, and mineral content. Pseudomonas presence was influenced by water source, hardness, free chlorine, and temperature. Legionella contamination was associated with a centralized heater, distance from the heater point >10 m, and a water plant >10 years old. Furthermore, zinc levels of <20 mg/L and copper levels of >50 mg/L appeared to be protective against Legionella colonization. Legionella species and serogroups were differently distributed according to heater type, water temperature, and free chlorine, suggesting that Legionella strains may have a different sensibility and resistance to environmental factors and different ecoloqic niches.
2004
10
3
457
464
Legionella infection risk from domestic hot water / Borella, Paola; M. T., Montagna; V., Romano Spica; S., Stampi; G., Stancanelli; M., Triassi; Neglia, Rachele Giovanna; Marchesi, Isabella; Fantuzzi, Guglielmina; D., Tatò; C., Napoli; G., Quaranta; P., Laurenti; E., Leoni; G., De Luca; C., Ossi; M., Moro; G., Ribera D'Alcalà. - In: EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES. - ISSN 1080-6040. - STAMPA. - 10:3(2004), pp. 457-464. [10.3201/eid1003.020707]
Borella, Paola; M. T., Montagna; V., Romano Spica; S., Stampi; G., Stancanelli; M., Triassi; Neglia, Rachele Giovanna; Marchesi, Isabella; Fantuzzi, Guglielmina; D., Tatò; C., Napoli; G., Quaranta; P., Laurenti; E., Leoni; G., De Luca; C., Ossi; M., Moro; G., Ribera D'Alcalà
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/612983
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