Chlorination by-products (CBPs) in drinking water have been associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including small for gestational age at term (term-SGA) and preterm delivery. Epidemiological evidence is weakened by a generally inaccurate exposure assessment, often at an ecological level. A case control study with incident cases was performed in nine Italian towns between October 1999 and September 2000. A total of 1,194 subjects were enrolled: 343 preterm births (26th–37th not completed week of pregnancy), 239 term-SGA (from 37th completed week, and weight less than the lowest 10th percentile) and 612 controls. Exposure was assessed both by applying a questionnaire on mothers’ personal habits during pregnancy and by water sampling directly at mothers’ homes.Levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) were low (median: 1.10 µg l−1), while chlorite and chlorate concentrations were relatively high (median: 216.5 µg l−1 for chlorites and 76.5 µg l−1 for chlorates). Preterm birth showed no association with CBPs, while term-SGA, when chlorite levels ≥200 µg l−1 combined with low and high levels of inhalation exposure are considered, suggested adose-response relationship (adjusted-Odds Ratios (ORs): 1.52, 95%CI: 0.91–2.54 and 1.70, 95%CI: 0.97–3.0, respectively). A weak association with high exposure levels of either THMs (≥30 µg l−1), or chlorite or chlorate (≥200 µg l−1) was also found (adjusted-OR: 1.38, 95%CI: 0.92–2.07). Chlorine dioxide treatment is widespread in Italy; therefore, chlorite levels should be regularly and carefully monitored and their potential effects on pregnancy further evaluated and better understood.
|Anno di pubblicazione:||2004|
|Titolo:||Chlorination By-Products (CBPs) in drinking water and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Italy|
|Autori:||G. AGGAZZOTTI; E. RIGHI; G. FANTUZZI; B. BIASOTTI; G. RAVERA; S. KANITZ; F. BARBONE; G. SANSEBASTIANO; M.A. BATTAGLIA; V. LEONI; L. FABIANI; M. TRIASSI; S. SCIACCA AND COLLABORATIVE GROUP FOR THE STUDY OF CHLORINATED DRINKING WATERS AND PREGNANCY|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo su rivista|
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