In recent years there has been a movement in second language acquisition approaches towards increasing the degree of autonomy which learners exercise over their learning. This has resulted in the language learning process becoming increasingly learner-directed rather than teacher-dominated, with the learners taking a major role in planning and negotiating course content and (self) evaluating their own performance.
The use of the European Language Portfolio in language learning: a case study / Poppi, Franca; S., Radighieri. - STAMPA. - (2007), pp. 167-189.