The current work utilizes the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) to develop a molecular level of the mechanistic understanding on the phenol alkylation in the presence of a cation-exchange resin catalyst, Amberlyst-15. The catalyst is modeled with the benzene sulfonic acid, and the effect of this acid on olefins such as isopropene (i-Pr) and tributene (t-Bu) in a phenol solution mimics the experimental condition. A neutral-pathway mechanism is established to account for early-stage high concentration of the phenolic ether observed in experiments. The mechanism involves an exothermic reaction between olefin and the benzene sulfonic acid to form ester followed by three reaction pathways leading to direct O-alkylation, o-C-alkylation, and p-C-alkylation. Our calculations conclude that O-alkylation to form the phenolic ether is the most energetically favorable in the neutral condition. An ionic rearrangement mechanism describes intramolecular migrations of the alkyl group from the phenolic ether to form C-alkylphenols, while the positively charged protonation significantly lowers transition barriers for these migrations. The ionic rearrangement mechanism accounts for high yields of o-C-alkylphenol and p-C-alkylphenol. Competition between the H atom and the alkyl R group at the substitutive site of the protonated ortho configuration is found to be the determining factor to the ortho/para ratio of C-alkylation products.

Alkylation of Phenol: A Mechanistic View / Q., MA; D., CHAKRABORTY; FAGLIONI, Francesco; R. P., MULLER; W. A., GODDARD III. - In: JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. A, MOLECULES, SPECTROSCOPY, KINETICS, ENVIRONMENT, & GENERAL THEORY. - ISSN 1089-5639. - STAMPA. - 110:(2006), pp. 2246-2252. [10.1021/jp0560213]

Alkylation of Phenol: A Mechanistic View

FAGLIONI, Francesco;
2006

Abstract

The current work utilizes the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) to develop a molecular level of the mechanistic understanding on the phenol alkylation in the presence of a cation-exchange resin catalyst, Amberlyst-15. The catalyst is modeled with the benzene sulfonic acid, and the effect of this acid on olefins such as isopropene (i-Pr) and tributene (t-Bu) in a phenol solution mimics the experimental condition. A neutral-pathway mechanism is established to account for early-stage high concentration of the phenolic ether observed in experiments. The mechanism involves an exothermic reaction between olefin and the benzene sulfonic acid to form ester followed by three reaction pathways leading to direct O-alkylation, o-C-alkylation, and p-C-alkylation. Our calculations conclude that O-alkylation to form the phenolic ether is the most energetically favorable in the neutral condition. An ionic rearrangement mechanism describes intramolecular migrations of the alkyl group from the phenolic ether to form C-alkylphenols, while the positively charged protonation significantly lowers transition barriers for these migrations. The ionic rearrangement mechanism accounts for high yields of o-C-alkylphenol and p-C-alkylphenol. Competition between the H atom and the alkyl R group at the substitutive site of the protonated ortho configuration is found to be the determining factor to the ortho/para ratio of C-alkylation products.
110
2246
2252
Alkylation of Phenol: A Mechanistic View / Q., MA; D., CHAKRABORTY; FAGLIONI, Francesco; R. P., MULLER; W. A., GODDARD III. - In: JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. A, MOLECULES, SPECTROSCOPY, KINETICS, ENVIRONMENT, & GENERAL THEORY. - ISSN 1089-5639. - STAMPA. - 110:(2006), pp. 2246-2252. [10.1021/jp0560213]
Q., Ma; D., Chakraborty; Faglioni, Francesco; R. P., Muller; W. A., GODDARD III
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11380/609787
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