The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is essential for normal gametogenesis. In females FSH is required for ovarian development and follicle maturation whereas in males FSH determines Sertoli cell number and quantitatively and qualitatively normal spermatogenesis. FSH action is mediated by a G-protein coupled receptor expressed solely in granulosa and Sertoli cells. The FSH-receptor (FSHR) gene is localized on chromosome 2 p21 and spans a region of 54 kb. It consists of ten exons; exon one to nine encode the large extracellular domain and the transmembrane domain is comprised of exon ten. Mutations in the FSHR gene could severely affect gametogenesis and result in infertility. Therefore screening programs have been initiated, in which patients with disturbed fertility were searched for mutations in the FSHR gene. Several Finnish families were identified displaying an inherited pattern of ovarian dysgenesis, a disease leading to streaky underdeveloped ovaries and primary amenorrhea. By genetic linkage the locus of the genetic defect was confined to chromosome 2 p21. Analysis of the FSHR gene resulted in the identification of a mutation (Ala189Val) homozygous in all affected females. Functional studies revealed that the mutation affects the proper protein folding and thereby inactivates the receptor. In a male patient hypophysectomized because of a pituitary tumor, who despite undetectable serum gonadotropins had normal semen parameters, we hypothesized an activating mutation of the FSHR. Screening of exon ten of the FSHR gene resulted in the identification of a Asp567Gly transition in the third intracytoplasmatic loop. Functional studies resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in basal cAMP production compared to wild type FSHR, indicating that the heterozygous mutation leads to a ligand-independent constitutive activation of the FSHR. This patient provides an exceptional model of nature defining the role of FSH in human spermatogenesis. Mutations of the FSHR might have differential effects in each gender. For example activating mutations have not been described in women, therefore it is not clear whether the constitutive activity of the receptor could disturb normal follicular development resulting in certain infertility.
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|Anno di pubblicazione:||1996|
|Titolo:||Functional and clinical consequences of mutations in the FSH receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol|
|Autori:||GROMOLL J; M. SIMONI; NORDHOFF V; BEHRE HM; DE GEYTER C; NIESCHLAG E|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo su rivista|
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