In this paper, we present the dynamic pictorial ontology paradigm for video annotation. Ontologies are often used to describe a given domain for different goals, including description of multimedia data. In the case of video annotation, the visual knowledge cannot be described using only abstract concepts but is more effectively represented in a visual form. To this aim, we introduce visual concepts, elicited from the data set as the most representative prototypes that specialize abstract concepts. The ontology created is intrinsically dynamic since it must embrace the perceptual and visual experience during annotation. Thus visual concepts can change, adapting to the multimedia content analyzed. Motivation for this new ontology paradigm are discussed together with a proposal of a framework for ontology creation, maintenance, and automatic annotation of video. The creation and usage of dynamic pictorial ontologies have been tested for soccer domain exploiting low level perceptual features and higher level domain features.
Dynamic Pictorial Ontologies for Video Digital libraries Annotation / M., Bertini; A., Del Bimbo; C., Torniai; Grana, Costantino; Cucchiara, Rita. - STAMPA. - (2007), pp. 47-56. (Intervento presentato al convegno International Multimedia Conference, MM'07 - Workshop on the Many Faces of Multimedia Semantics, MS'07 tenutosi a Ausburg, Germany nel Sep 28) [10.1145/1290067.1290076].