abs. 10.1474, 01-0437.We have undertaken a systematic study of Bronze axes found in some Early to Middle Age sites of the Modena province conserved at the Modena Archaeological and Ethnological Museum of Municipality. The axes show different forms, reflecting an evolution in the metallurgic craft process and in the raw material used.Aim of this study is to identify a suitable method010 y in order to obtain the most reliable data by collecting the minor amount of fragments from the archaeological remains. Analyses at first were performed on two axes reproduced by using experimental archaeometallurgic techniques and one remain of Early Bronze Age (Savignano 994). Due to their state of conservation, it was possible onthese objects to obtain polished thin sections normally to the elongation axis of the manufact from.Analytical techniques were Electron Microprobe (EMPA), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and a microstructural characterisation using light microscopy and Scanning Electron Mlcroscopy (SEM). A comparison of the chemical analyses from polished thin sections with those from fragments of the same objects permits the assess of the minimum number of the micro-cores sampling needed to obtain unbiased estimates of the mean composition.Successively, the study was extended to about twenty archaeological finds. From this items, some fragments were took out by using a pillar micro-drill with a tip of one millimetre diameter. EMPA analyses were performed on these fragments in order to determine the major and minor element concentration (Cu; Sn; Pb). Concentration of minor and trace element was estimated by ICP-OES (Sn; Ag; Au; As; Sb, Ni; Bi; CO; Fe; Ge; Ga; In; Sr; Cr; Se; V; Mn; Cd; Zn). Within the limits of the present restricted sample population the analytical results show the following characteristics: a) a confirmation of the well known trend of increasing Sn content from the Early Bronze to the Middle-Recent Bronze Age finds; b) an abrupt decrease of the Sn content in the alloys of the Recent Bronze Items. Concomitantly with the latter variation, the artefacts show an increase in In (from negligible amounts to 40-200 ppm) and Zn, and a decrease in As, Sb, Ni, Cr. These variations may be caused by: a) employment of different raw material; b) different sites of purchasing of raw material; c) variation of procedures of copper and tin mining (new scorifier used); d) other processes. Major and trace element analyses of other artefacts and various possiible raw material are currently in progress, in order to better constrain the above possibilities. In this context, of crucial interest for archaeometric studies is: a) the determination of the trace element partition coefficients between the metal and the slag phases during the smelting of the raw material; b) the factors controlling their variations; c) the behaviour of trace elements during the ingot melting and artefact production.

Bronze age axes from the “Terramare” area (Modena – Emilia Romagna, Italy) / Giovannini, Sonia; Cardarelli, Andrea; Mazzucchelli, Maurizio. - In: EPITOME. - ISSN 1972-1552. - STAMPA. - 1:(2005), pp. 122-122. ((Intervento presentato al convegno Geoitalia 2005: 5° Forum italiano di Scienze della Terra tenutosi a Spoleto, PG nel 21-23/09/2005.

Bronze age axes from the “Terramare” area (Modena – Emilia Romagna, Italy).

GIOVANNINI, Sonia;CARDARELLI, Andrea;MAZZUCCHELLI, Maurizio
2005

Abstract

abs. 10.1474, 01-0437.We have undertaken a systematic study of Bronze axes found in some Early to Middle Age sites of the Modena province conserved at the Modena Archaeological and Ethnological Museum of Municipality. The axes show different forms, reflecting an evolution in the metallurgic craft process and in the raw material used.Aim of this study is to identify a suitable method010 y in order to obtain the most reliable data by collecting the minor amount of fragments from the archaeological remains. Analyses at first were performed on two axes reproduced by using experimental archaeometallurgic techniques and one remain of Early Bronze Age (Savignano 994). Due to their state of conservation, it was possible onthese objects to obtain polished thin sections normally to the elongation axis of the manufact from.Analytical techniques were Electron Microprobe (EMPA), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and a microstructural characterisation using light microscopy and Scanning Electron Mlcroscopy (SEM). A comparison of the chemical analyses from polished thin sections with those from fragments of the same objects permits the assess of the minimum number of the micro-cores sampling needed to obtain unbiased estimates of the mean composition.Successively, the study was extended to about twenty archaeological finds. From this items, some fragments were took out by using a pillar micro-drill with a tip of one millimetre diameter. EMPA analyses were performed on these fragments in order to determine the major and minor element concentration (Cu; Sn; Pb). Concentration of minor and trace element was estimated by ICP-OES (Sn; Ag; Au; As; Sb, Ni; Bi; CO; Fe; Ge; Ga; In; Sr; Cr; Se; V; Mn; Cd; Zn). Within the limits of the present restricted sample population the analytical results show the following characteristics: a) a confirmation of the well known trend of increasing Sn content from the Early Bronze to the Middle-Recent Bronze Age finds; b) an abrupt decrease of the Sn content in the alloys of the Recent Bronze Items. Concomitantly with the latter variation, the artefacts show an increase in In (from negligible amounts to 40-200 ppm) and Zn, and a decrease in As, Sb, Ni, Cr. These variations may be caused by: a) employment of different raw material; b) different sites of purchasing of raw material; c) variation of procedures of copper and tin mining (new scorifier used); d) other processes. Major and trace element analyses of other artefacts and various possiible raw material are currently in progress, in order to better constrain the above possibilities. In this context, of crucial interest for archaeometric studies is: a) the determination of the trace element partition coefficients between the metal and the slag phases during the smelting of the raw material; b) the factors controlling their variations; c) the behaviour of trace elements during the ingot melting and artefact production.
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Giovannini, Sonia; Cardarelli, Andrea; Mazzucchelli, Maurizio
Bronze age axes from the “Terramare” area (Modena – Emilia Romagna, Italy) / Giovannini, Sonia; Cardarelli, Andrea; Mazzucchelli, Maurizio. - In: EPITOME. - ISSN 1972-1552. - STAMPA. - 1:(2005), pp. 122-122. ((Intervento presentato al convegno Geoitalia 2005: 5° Forum italiano di Scienze della Terra tenutosi a Spoleto, PG nel 21-23/09/2005.
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