Seasonal and diurnal variations in tonic pain reactions were examined in female and male CBA/J mice maintained in a 12/12 dark/light cycle, at controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Animals were injected into the dorsum of one hindpaw with a dilute (20 mul, 1%) formalin solution. Pain-related behaviors were quantified as the time spent licking the injected paw and the number of flinching episodes. The experiments were performed during the first part of the light phase (Light: from 7 to 10 a.m.) or during the first part of the dark phase of the diurnal cycle (Dark: from 7 to 10 p.m.), in two different periods of the year: Spring (March-June) and Winter (November-January). Considering all data, females showed a slightly enhanced licking response, as well as an increase in the time spent in self-grooming, in comparison with males. In Spring, the licking and flinching responses were higher during the Dark phase than during the Light phase. This held for both sexes and for both phases of the behavioral response to formalin injection. By contrast, no significant diurnal variation in pain reactions was found in Winter. These seasonal and diurnal differences were not due to nonspecific changes in motor behavior, inasmuch as locomotor activity and self-grooming showed a different pattern: during the second phase after formalin, self-grooming was higher in the Light period in the experiments performed in Spring, whereas locomotor activity showed no significant seasonal changes. These results show that the behavioral reactions to prolonged noxious input, integrated both at spinal and supraspinal sites, undergo similar seasonal and diurnal variations in both sexes, strengthening the importance of chronobiological factors in the modulation of nociception.
|Data di pubblicazione:||2003|
|Titolo:||Tonic pain responses in mice: effects of sex, season, and day time|
|Autori:||PERISSIN L.; FACCHIN P.; PORRO C.A.|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/S0024-3205(02)02344-5|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo su rivista|
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