Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), while having negligible effects on cardiovascular function in the intact animal, induces a potent and sustained reversal of an otherwise invariably, rapidly fatal condition of hemorrhage-induced hypovolemic shock, in rats and dogs. The main site(s) of action are at the peripheral level; however, subsidiary site(s) of action in the CNS cannot be excluded. The studies on the mechanism of action indicate that the ACTH-induced reversal of hemorrhagic shock (a) is an extra-hormonal, adrenal-independent effect, because it is not affected by adrenalectomy and is shared by many ACTH-fragments practically devoid of corticotropic activity; (b) is antagonized by morphine in a surmontable way; (c) needs the functional integrity of the sympathetic nervous system (it is prevented by guanethidine, reserpine, and clonidine) and the availability of peripheral alpha-adrenoceptors (it is antagonized by dibenamine, prazosin and yohimbine, but not by practolol); (d) requires the integrity of afferent vagal fibers (it is almost completely abolished by vagotomy); (e) involves central cholinergic networks (it is antagonized by atropine sulphate, but not by atropine methyl bromide; and it is prevented by the intracerebroventricular injection of hemicholinium-3); (f) is associated with a massive increase in the volume of circulating blood, likely due to a mobilization from peripheral pooling sites (it is largely prevented by splenectomy or by suprahepatic veins ligature, and is associated with a restoration of the venous blood flow in peripheral vascular beds and with a normalization of venous PO2); (g) is associated with a restoration of heart and spleen adrenoceptors, whose number is significantly decreased during hemorrhagic shock. The survival time of hemorrhage-shocked animals, which is 26 +/- 3 min in controls, is greatly prolonged (44 +/- 18 h) by ACTH, provided that the treatment is made within 5-10 min after bleeding. Finally, in animals treated with ACTH within 5-10 min after bleeding, blood reinfusion retains its effectiveness and reverse shock even if performed 2-5 h later.
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|Data di pubblicazione:||1989|
|Titolo:||The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-induced reversal of hemorrhagic shock.|
|Autori:||BERTOLINI A; FERRARI W; S. GUARINI|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo su rivista|
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