The study evaluated occupational exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in indoor swimming pools. Thirty-two subjects, representing the whole workforce employed in the five public indoor swimming pools in the city of Modena (Northern Italy) were enrolled. Both environmental and biological monitoring of THMs exposure were performed. Environmental concentrations of THMs in different areas inside the swimming pools (at the poolside, in the reception area and in the engine-room) were measured as external exposure index, while individual exposure of swimming pool employees was estimated by THMs concentration in alveolar air. The levels of THMs observed in swimming pool water ranged from 17.8 to 70.8 ug/l; the mean levels of THMs in ambient air were 25.6 +/- 24.5 ug/m3 in the engine room, 26.1 +/- 24.3 ug/m3 in the reception area and 58.0 +/- 22.1 ug/m3 at the poolside. Among THMs, only chloroform and bromodichloromethane were always measured in ambient air, while dibromochloromethane was detected in ambient air rarely and bromoform only once. Biological monitoring results showed a THMs mean value of 20.9 +/- 15.6 ug/m3. Statistically significant differences were observed according to the main job activity: in pool attendants, THMs alveolar air were approximately double those observed in employees working in other areas of the swimming pools (25.1 +/- 16.5 ug/m3 vs. 14.8 +/- 12.3 ug/m3, P < 0.01), THMs in alveolar air samples were significantly correlated with THMs concentrations in ambient air (r = 0,57, P < 0.001). Indoor swimming pool employees are exposed to THMs at ambient air levels higher than the general population. The different environmental exposure inside the swimming pool can induce a different internal dose in exposed workers. The correlation found between ambient and alveolar air samples confirms that breath analysis is a good biological index of occupational exposure to these substances at low environmental levels.
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|Anno di pubblicazione:||2001|
|Titolo:||Occupational exposure to trihalomethanes in indoor swimming pools|
|Autori:||G. Fantuzzi; E. Righi; G. Predieri; G. Ceppelli; F. Gobba; G. Aggazzotti|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00722-1|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo su rivista|
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