The National Society of Nephrology has promoted the development of specific Italian Guidelines for dialysis fluids. Two previous national inquiries showed a wide variety in the type and frequency of both microbiological and chemical controls concerning dialysis water, reinforcing the need for specific standards and recommendations. An optimal water treatment system should include tap water pre-treatment and a double reverse osmosis process. Every component of the system, including the delivery of the treated water to the dialysis machines, should prevent microbiological contamination of the fluid. Regular chemical and microbiological tests and regular disinfection of the system are necessary. 1. Chemical quality (Table: see text). Treated tap water used to prepare dialysis fluid should be within European Pharmacopoeia limits at the water treatment system inlet and at the reverse osmosis outlet. In addition dialysate, concentrate and infusion fluids must comply with specific Pharmacopoeia limits. The physician in charge of the dialysis unit is advised to institute a multidisciplinary team to evaluate the requirement for added chemical controls in the presence of local hazards. 2. Microbiological quality (Table: see text). High microbiological purity of dialysis fluid--regularly verified--is a fundamental prerequisite for dialysis quality and every dialysis unit should aim as a matter of course to obtain "ultra-pure" dialysate (microbial count <0.1 UFC/mL, endotoxins <0.03 U/mL). On-line dialysate ultrafiltration and regular disinfection of dialysis machines greatly enhance microbiological purity. On-line dialysate reinfusion requires specific devices used according to corresponding instructions and to more frequent microbiological tests. Dialysis fluids for home dialysis should comply with the same chemical and bacteriological quality. The appendix reports the water treatment system's technical characteristics, sampling and analytical methods, monitoring time-tables, as well as the origin and effects of the main toxic substances. Suggestions and questions concerning these guidelines are welcome to firstname.lastname@example.org
|Anno di pubblicazione:||2005|
|Titolo:||Guidelines on water and solutions for dialysis. Italian Society of Nephrology|
|Autori:||Alloatti S; Bolasco P; Canavese C; Cappelli G; Pedrini L; Pizzarelli F; Pontoriero G; Santoro A; Anastasio P; Teatini U; Fuiano G|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo su rivista|
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