Although nickel(II) oxide (NiO) is a potential carcinogenic agent, it is still used in the synthesis of ceramic pigments because during their preparation at high temperature, NiO is thought to combine with other compounds, crystallizing as new phases with spinel-like structures. Unfortunately, there are no widely accepted methods for the determination of free NiO in ceramics, the main reason being experimental difficulties. In fact, quantitative phase analysis (QPA) by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) may fail because diffraction peaks of NiO with space group Fm (3) over bar m and a similar or equal to 4.18 Angstrom overlap with those of the spinel with space group Fd (3) over bar m and a similar or equal to 8.4 Angstrom. To overcome this problem, in this work QPA has been performed in situ at high temperature to resolve the peak overlap of NiO and spinel by taking advantage of the different thermal expansion of each phase. It is believed that this is the first report of the application of this technique.
X-ray powder diffraction quantitative analysis performed in situ at high temperature: application to the determination of NiO in ceramic pigments / Gualtieri, Alessandro; E., Mazzucato; P., Venturelli; A., Viani; Zannini, Paolo; L., Petras. - In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. - ISSN 0021-8898. - STAMPA. - 32:(1999), pp. 808-813.