Activation of peripheral cannabinoid CB1 receptors contributes to hemorrhagic hypotension, and endocannabinoids produced by macrophages and platelets may be mediators of this effect. A number of studies have provided evidence that functional links exist in the mechanisms of action of cannabinoids and opioid peptides; and opioids too play an important role in the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic hypotension and shock. On the other hand, melanocortin peptides, which are the main endogenous functional antagonists of opioid peptides, have an antishock effect in animals and humans. Thus, we investigated whether an interaction exists between endocannabinoids and the endogenous opioid/antiopioid system also in a condition of hemorrhagic shock and, particularly, whether the blockade of cannabinoid CB1 receptors potentiates the antishock effect of melanocortins, Urethane-anesthetized rats were stepwise bled until mean arterial pressure decreased to, and stabilized at, 21-23 mm Hg. In this model of hemorrhagic shock, which caused the death of all control rats within 30 min after vehicle (tween 80, 5% in saline) injection, the intravenous (i.v.) bolus injection of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist N-pip -eridino-5-[4-chlorophenyl]-1-[2,4 dichlorophenyl]-4-methyl-3-pyrazolecarboxaniide (SR141716A) increased mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, respiratory rate and survival rate in a dose-related manner (0.1-3 mg/kg), an almost complete recovery of mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure and respiratory rate, and 100% survival at the end of the observation period (2 h), occurring with the dose of 3 mg/kg. The melanocortin ACTH-(1-24) (adrenocorticotropin) also produced in a dose-related manner (0.02-0.16 mg/kg i.v.) a restoration of cardiovascular and respiratory functions, and increased survival rate, an almost complete recovery and 100% survival at the end of the observation period (2 h) occurring with the dose of 0.16 mg/kg. When a subactive dose of SR141716A (0.2 mg/kg; 30% survival) was associated with a subactive dose of ACTH-(1-24) (0.02 mg/kg; 12% survival), a complete reversal of the shock condition was obtained with 100% survival at the end of the 2-h observation period. The present results show that the concurrent inhibition of both endogenous opioid and cannabinoid systems produces a reversal of hemorrhagic shock more effective than that produced by the inhibition of either of them. These data suggest that functional interactions between endocannabinoids and opioid/antiopioid are at work also in the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic shock. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Cannabinoid CB1 receptor blockade enhances the protective effect of melanocortins in hemorrhagic shock in the rat / Mm, Cainazzo; G., Ferrazza; Mioni, Chiara; Bazzani, Carla; Bertolini, Alfio; Guarini, Salvatore. - In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY. - ISSN 0014-2999. - STAMPA. - 441:(2002), pp. 91-97.