The effects of the ionic atmosphere on the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the reduction potential of native (state III) beef heart cytochrome c have been determined through variable-temperature direct electrochemistry experiments. At neutral or slightly alkaline pH values, from 5 to 50 degrees C, the reduction enthalpy and entropy become less negative with decreasing ionic strength. The reduction entropy extrapolated at null ionic strength is approximately zero, indicating that, in the absence of the screening effects of the salt ions on the network of the electrostatic interactions at the protein-solvent interface, the solvation properties and the conformational flexibility of the two redox states are comparable. The moderate decrease in E degrees' observed with increasing ionic strength [Delta E degrees(IS)' = (E degrees')(I=0.1 M)-(E degrees')(I=0 M) =-0.035 V at 25 degrees C], once the compensating enthalpic and entropic effects of the salt-induced changes in the hydrogen bonding within the hydration sphere of the molecule in the two redox states are factorized out, results in being ultimately determined by the stabilizing enthalpic effect of the negatively charged ionic atmosphere on the ferri form. At pH 9, the ionic strength dependence of the reduction termodynamics of cytochrome c follows distinctive patterns, possibly as a result of specific binding of the hydroxide ion to the protein. A decrease in ionic strength at constant pH, as well as a pH increase at constant ionic strength, induces a depression of the temperature of the transition from the low-T to high-T conformer of cytochrome c, which suggests that a temperature-induced decrease in the pK(a) for a residue deprotonation is the key event of this conformational change.
|Anno di pubblicazione:||1999|
|Titolo:||Effects of nonspecific ion-protein interactions on the redox chemistry of cytochrome c|
|Autori:||G. BATTISTUZZI; L. LOSCHI; M. BORSARI; M. SOLA|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo su rivista|
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