We describe a model to evaluate the volcanic SO2 emission using images acquired by the airborne multispectral infrared and visible imaging spectrometer (MIVIS) in the thermal infrared spectral region. The estimating procedure consists of mapping of the SO2 columnar content and evaluation of the total SO2 flux emitted by the volcano. All the atmospheric radiative effects, including the SO2 plume emission/absorption, are computed by the MODTRAN 3.5 radiative transfer code. We apply the model to two MIVIS images acquired over Mount Etna, located on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, during the Sicilia-94 remote sensing campaign on July 24 and 25, 1994. The June 25 image was acquired during the night; this is the first attempt to estimate the SO2 content in volcanic plume using nocturnal thermal infrared images. The total flux estimates range from 20.9 kg (s-1) (1810 t d(-1)) to 82.2 kg s(-1) (7100 t d(-1)) depending on the plume geometry used in the procedure. These results, except one case (82.2 kg s(-1)), are in agreement with the estimates derived from correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) measurements collected during the same period. We also evaluate the dependencies of the results on several parameters such as plume geometry, surface emissivity, water vapor content, and wind speed.
Evaluation of SO2 emission from Mount Etna using diurnal and nocturnal multispectral IR and visible imaging spectrometer thermal IR remote sensing images and radiative transfer models / Teggi, Sergio; Mp, Bogliolo; Mf, Buongiorno; Pugnaghi, Sergio; A., Sterni. - In: JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH. - ISSN 0148-0227. - STAMPA. - 104:(1999), pp. 20069-20079.