The molecular basis for the known intramembrane receptor-receptor interactions among heptahelical receptors (G protein coupled receptors, GPCR) was postulated to be heteromerization based on receptor subtype specific interactions between different types of homomers of GPCR. Adenosine and dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia have been fundamental to demonstrate the existence of receptor heteromers and the functional consequences of such molecular interactions. The heterodimer is only one type of heteromeric complex and the evidence is equally compatible with the existence of higher order heteromeric complexes, where also adapter proteins such as homer proteins and scaffolding proteins can exist, assisting in the process of linking the GPCR and ion channel receptors together in a receptor mosaic that may have special integrative value and may constitute the molecular basis for learning and memory. Heteromerization of D-2 dopamine and A(2A) adenosine receptors is reviewed by Fuxe in another article in this special issue. Here, heteromerization between D-1 dopamine and A(1) adenosine receptors is reviewed. Heteromers formed by dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptors and by adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors also occur in striatal cells and open new perspectives to understand why two receptors with apparently opposite effects are expressed in the same neuron and in the nerve terminals. The role of accessory proteins also capable of interacting with receptor-receptor heteromers in regulating the traffic and the molecular physiology of these receptors is also discussed. Overall, the knowledge of the reason why such complex networks of receptor-receptor and receptor-protein interactions occur in striatal cells is crucial to develop new strategies to combat neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases.
Receptor-receptor interactions involving adenosine A(1) or dopamine D-1 receptors and accessory proteins / Franco, R; Lluis, C; Canela, Ei; Mallol, J; Agnati, Luigi Francesco; Casado, V; Ciruela, F; Ferre, S; Fuxe, K.. - In: JOURNAL OF NEURAL TRANSMISSION. - ISSN 0300-9564. - STAMPA. - 114:(2007), pp. 93-104.