Purpose: In recent years, microfluidic technologies have become mainstream in producing gene therapy nanomedicines (NMeds) following the Covid-19 vaccine; however, extensive optimizations are needed for each NMed type and genetic material. This article strives to improve LNPs for pDNA loading, protection, and delivery, while minimizing toxicity. Methods: The microfluidic technique was optimized to form cationic or neutral LNPs to load pDNA. Classical “post-formulation” DNA addition vs “pre” addition in the aqueous phase were compared. All formulations were characterized (size, homogeneity, zeta potential, morphology, weight yield, and stability), then tested for loading efficiency, nuclease protection, toxicity, and cell uptake. Results: Optimized LNPs formulated with DPPC: Chol:DOTAP 1:1:0.1 molar ratio and 10 µg of DOPE-Rhod, had a size of 160 nm and good homogeneity. The chemico-physical characteristics of cationic LNPs worsened when adding 15 µg/mL of pDNA with the “post” method, while maintaining their characteristics up to 100 µg/mL of pDNA with the “pre” addition remaining stable for 30 days. Interestingly, neutral LNPs formulated with the same method loaded up to 50% of the DNA. Both particles could protect the DNA from nucleases even after one month of storage, and low cell toxicity was found up to 40 µg/mL LNPs. Cell uptake occurred within 2 hours for both formulations with the DNA intact in the cytoplasm, outside of the lysosomes. Conclusion: In this study, the upcoming microfluidic technique was applied to two strategies to generate pDNA-LNPs. Cationic LNPs could load 10x the amount of DNA as the classical approach, while neutral LNPs, which also loaded and protected DNA, showed lower toxicity and good DNA protection. This is a big step forward at minimizing doses and toxicity of LNP-based gene therapy.

Strategies for Improved pDNA Loading and Protection Using Cationic and Neutral LNPs with Industrial Scalability Potential Using Microfluidic Technology / Ottonelli, I.; Adani, E.; Bighinati, A.; Cuoghi, S.; Tosi, G.; Vandelli, M. A.; Ruozi, B.; Marigo, V.; Duskey, J. T.. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NANOMEDICINE. - ISSN 1176-9114. - 19:(2024), pp. 4235-4251. [10.2147/IJN.S457302]

Strategies for Improved pDNA Loading and Protection Using Cationic and Neutral LNPs with Industrial Scalability Potential Using Microfluidic Technology

Ottonelli I.;Adani E.;Bighinati A.;Cuoghi S.;Tosi G.;Vandelli M. A.;Ruozi B.;Marigo V.;Duskey J. T.
2024

Abstract

Purpose: In recent years, microfluidic technologies have become mainstream in producing gene therapy nanomedicines (NMeds) following the Covid-19 vaccine; however, extensive optimizations are needed for each NMed type and genetic material. This article strives to improve LNPs for pDNA loading, protection, and delivery, while minimizing toxicity. Methods: The microfluidic technique was optimized to form cationic or neutral LNPs to load pDNA. Classical “post-formulation” DNA addition vs “pre” addition in the aqueous phase were compared. All formulations were characterized (size, homogeneity, zeta potential, morphology, weight yield, and stability), then tested for loading efficiency, nuclease protection, toxicity, and cell uptake. Results: Optimized LNPs formulated with DPPC: Chol:DOTAP 1:1:0.1 molar ratio and 10 µg of DOPE-Rhod, had a size of 160 nm and good homogeneity. The chemico-physical characteristics of cationic LNPs worsened when adding 15 µg/mL of pDNA with the “post” method, while maintaining their characteristics up to 100 µg/mL of pDNA with the “pre” addition remaining stable for 30 days. Interestingly, neutral LNPs formulated with the same method loaded up to 50% of the DNA. Both particles could protect the DNA from nucleases even after one month of storage, and low cell toxicity was found up to 40 µg/mL LNPs. Cell uptake occurred within 2 hours for both formulations with the DNA intact in the cytoplasm, outside of the lysosomes. Conclusion: In this study, the upcoming microfluidic technique was applied to two strategies to generate pDNA-LNPs. Cationic LNPs could load 10x the amount of DNA as the classical approach, while neutral LNPs, which also loaded and protected DNA, showed lower toxicity and good DNA protection. This is a big step forward at minimizing doses and toxicity of LNP-based gene therapy.
2024
19
4235
4251
Strategies for Improved pDNA Loading and Protection Using Cationic and Neutral LNPs with Industrial Scalability Potential Using Microfluidic Technology / Ottonelli, I.; Adani, E.; Bighinati, A.; Cuoghi, S.; Tosi, G.; Vandelli, M. A.; Ruozi, B.; Marigo, V.; Duskey, J. T.. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NANOMEDICINE. - ISSN 1176-9114. - 19:(2024), pp. 4235-4251. [10.2147/IJN.S457302]
Ottonelli, I.; Adani, E.; Bighinati, A.; Cuoghi, S.; Tosi, G.; Vandelli, M. A.; Ruozi, B.; Marigo, V.; Duskey, J. T.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1340768
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