The development of three-dimensional (3D) printed sensors attracts high interest from the smart electronic industry owing to the significant geometric freedom allowed by the printing process and the potential for bespoke composite feedstocks being imbued with specific material properties. In particular, feedstock for material extrusion (MEX) additive manufacturing by fused filament fabrication can be provided with piezoelectricity and electrical conductivity. However, piezoelectricity often requires electrical poling for activation. In this study, a candidate material containing thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and carbon black (CB) with conductive and flexible properties is incorporated with piezoelectric elements like polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and barium titanate (BaTiO3) to assess its suitability for sensor applications without electrical poling. Texturing the surface of BaTiO3 particles and adding tetraphenylphosphonium chloride (TPPC) to the composite are evaluated as non-poling treatments to improve the sensor response. It was found that TPU and PVDF produced segregated domain structures within the printed sensors that aligned along the printing direction. Due to the effect of this preferential orientation combined with the presence of raster-raster interfaces, printed sensors exhibited significant electrical anisotropy registering greater electrical waveforms when the electrodes aligned parallel to the raster direction. An improvement of current baseline from 0.4 µA to 12 µA in the parallel direction was observed in sensors functionalised with both treatments. Similarly, when the waveform responses were measured under a standardised impact force, current amplitudes in both orientations registered a twofold increase for any impact force when both treatments were applied to the feedstock material. The results achieved within this study elucidate how composite formulations can enhance the sensor response prior to conducting electrical poling.

Electrical capability of 3D printed unpoled polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) sensors combined with carbon black and barium titanate / Simunec, D. P.; Breedon, M.; Muhammad, F. U. R.; Kyratzis, L.; Sola, A.. - In: ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING. - ISSN 2214-8604. - 73:(2023), pp. 1-18. [10.1016/j.addma.2023.103679]

Electrical capability of 3D printed unpoled polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) sensors combined with carbon black and barium titanate

Sola A.
2023

Abstract

The development of three-dimensional (3D) printed sensors attracts high interest from the smart electronic industry owing to the significant geometric freedom allowed by the printing process and the potential for bespoke composite feedstocks being imbued with specific material properties. In particular, feedstock for material extrusion (MEX) additive manufacturing by fused filament fabrication can be provided with piezoelectricity and electrical conductivity. However, piezoelectricity often requires electrical poling for activation. In this study, a candidate material containing thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and carbon black (CB) with conductive and flexible properties is incorporated with piezoelectric elements like polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and barium titanate (BaTiO3) to assess its suitability for sensor applications without electrical poling. Texturing the surface of BaTiO3 particles and adding tetraphenylphosphonium chloride (TPPC) to the composite are evaluated as non-poling treatments to improve the sensor response. It was found that TPU and PVDF produced segregated domain structures within the printed sensors that aligned along the printing direction. Due to the effect of this preferential orientation combined with the presence of raster-raster interfaces, printed sensors exhibited significant electrical anisotropy registering greater electrical waveforms when the electrodes aligned parallel to the raster direction. An improvement of current baseline from 0.4 µA to 12 µA in the parallel direction was observed in sensors functionalised with both treatments. Similarly, when the waveform responses were measured under a standardised impact force, current amplitudes in both orientations registered a twofold increase for any impact force when both treatments were applied to the feedstock material. The results achieved within this study elucidate how composite formulations can enhance the sensor response prior to conducting electrical poling.
2023
1-lug-2023
73
1
18
Electrical capability of 3D printed unpoled polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) sensors combined with carbon black and barium titanate / Simunec, D. P.; Breedon, M.; Muhammad, F. U. R.; Kyratzis, L.; Sola, A.. - In: ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING. - ISSN 2214-8604. - 73:(2023), pp. 1-18. [10.1016/j.addma.2023.103679]
Simunec, D. P.; Breedon, M.; Muhammad, F. U. R.; Kyratzis, L.; Sola, A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1335586
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