Dairy intake may influence cognition through several molecular pathways. However, epidemiologic studies yield inconsistent results, and no dose-response meta-analysis has been conducted yet. Therefore, we performed a systematic review with a dose-response meta-analysis about the association between dairy intake and cognitive decline or incidence of dementia. We investigated prospective studies with a follow-up ≥6 mo on cognitive decline or dementia incidence in adults without known chronic conditions through a systematic search of Embase, Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from inception to 11 July 2023. We evaluated the dose-response association using a random-effects model. We identified 15 eligible cohort studies with >300,000 participants and a median follow-up of 11.4 y. We observed a negative nonlinear association between cognitive decline/dementia incidence and dairy intake as assessed through the quantity of consumption, with the nadir at ∼150 g/d (risk ratio: 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.99). Conversely, we found an almost linear negative association when we considered the frequency of consumption (risk ratio for linear trend: 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.92 for 1 time/d increase of dairy products). Stratified analysis by dairy products showed different shapes of the association with linear inverse relationship for milk intake, whereas possibly nonlinear for cheese. The inverse association was limited to Asian populations characterized by generally lower intake of dairy products, compared with the null association reported by European studies. In conclusion, our study suggests a nonlinear inverse association between dairy intake and cognitive decline or dementia, also depending on dairy types and population characteristics, although the heterogeneity was still high in overall and several subgroup analyses. Additional studies should be performed on this topic, including a wider range of intake and types of dairy products, to confirm a potential preventing role of dairy intake on cognitive decline and identify ideal intake doses. This review was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42020192395.

Dairy Intake and Risk of Cognitive Decline and Dementia: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies / Villoz, F.; Filippini, T.; Ortega, N.; Kopp-Heim, D.; Voortman, T.; Blum, M. R.; Del Giovane, C.; Vinceti, M.; Rodondi, N.; Chocano-Bedoya, P. O.. - In: ADVANCES IN NUTRITION. - ISSN 2161-8313. - 15:1(2024), pp. 100160-100173. [10.1016/j.advnut.2023.100160]

Dairy Intake and Risk of Cognitive Decline and Dementia: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

Filippini T.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Del Giovane C.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Vinceti M.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2024

Abstract

Dairy intake may influence cognition through several molecular pathways. However, epidemiologic studies yield inconsistent results, and no dose-response meta-analysis has been conducted yet. Therefore, we performed a systematic review with a dose-response meta-analysis about the association between dairy intake and cognitive decline or incidence of dementia. We investigated prospective studies with a follow-up ≥6 mo on cognitive decline or dementia incidence in adults without known chronic conditions through a systematic search of Embase, Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from inception to 11 July 2023. We evaluated the dose-response association using a random-effects model. We identified 15 eligible cohort studies with >300,000 participants and a median follow-up of 11.4 y. We observed a negative nonlinear association between cognitive decline/dementia incidence and dairy intake as assessed through the quantity of consumption, with the nadir at ∼150 g/d (risk ratio: 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.99). Conversely, we found an almost linear negative association when we considered the frequency of consumption (risk ratio for linear trend: 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.92 for 1 time/d increase of dairy products). Stratified analysis by dairy products showed different shapes of the association with linear inverse relationship for milk intake, whereas possibly nonlinear for cheese. The inverse association was limited to Asian populations characterized by generally lower intake of dairy products, compared with the null association reported by European studies. In conclusion, our study suggests a nonlinear inverse association between dairy intake and cognitive decline or dementia, also depending on dairy types and population characteristics, although the heterogeneity was still high in overall and several subgroup analyses. Additional studies should be performed on this topic, including a wider range of intake and types of dairy products, to confirm a potential preventing role of dairy intake on cognitive decline and identify ideal intake doses. This review was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42020192395.
2024
15
1
100160
100173
Dairy Intake and Risk of Cognitive Decline and Dementia: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies / Villoz, F.; Filippini, T.; Ortega, N.; Kopp-Heim, D.; Voortman, T.; Blum, M. R.; Del Giovane, C.; Vinceti, M.; Rodondi, N.; Chocano-Bedoya, P. O.. - In: ADVANCES IN NUTRITION. - ISSN 2161-8313. - 15:1(2024), pp. 100160-100173. [10.1016/j.advnut.2023.100160]
Villoz, F.; Filippini, T.; Ortega, N.; Kopp-Heim, D.; Voortman, T.; Blum, M. R.; Del Giovane, C.; Vinceti, M.; Rodondi, N.; Chocano-Bedoya, P. O....espandi
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
1-s2.0-S2161831323014473-main.pdf

Open access

Tipologia: Versione pubblicata dall'editore
Dimensione 848.12 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
848.12 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

Licenza Creative Commons
I metadati presenti in IRIS UNIMORE sono rilasciati con licenza Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal, mentre i file delle pubblicazioni sono rilasciati con licenza Attribuzione 4.0 Internazionale (CC BY 4.0), salvo diversa indicazione.
In caso di violazione di copyright, contattare Supporto Iris

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1329278
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 3
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 2
social impact