Introduction: Fluoride exposure may have various adverse health effects, including affecting thyroid function and disease risk, but the pattern of such relation is still uncertain. Methods: We systematically searched human studies assessing the relation between fluoride exposure and thyroid function and disease. We compared the highest versus the lowest fluoride category across these studies, and we performed a one-stage dose-response meta-analysis for aggregated data to explore the shape of the association. Results: Most retrieved studies (27 of which with a cross-sectional design) were conducted in Asia and in children, assessing fluoride exposure through its concentrations in drinking water, urine, serum, or dietary intake. Twenty-four studies reported data on thyroid function by measuring thyroid-related hormones in blood (mainly thyroid-stimulating-hormone - TSH), 9 reported data on thyroid disease, and 4 on thyroid volume. By comparing the highest versus the lowest fluoride categories, overall mean TSH difference was 1.05 μIU/mL. Dose-response curve showed no change in TSH concentrations in the lowest water fluoride exposure range, while the hormone levels started to linearly increase around 2.5 mg/L, also dependending on the risk of bias of the included studies. The association between biomarkers of fluoride exposure and TSH was also positive, with little evidence of a threshold. Evidence for an association between fluoride exposure and blood concentrations of thyroid hormones was less evident, though there was an indication of inverse association with triiodothyronine. For thyroid disease, the few available studies suggested a positive association with goiter and with hypothyroidism in both children and adults. Conclusions: Overall, exposure to high-fluoride drinking water appears to non-linearly affect thyroid function and increase TSH release in children, starting above a threshold of exposure, and to increase the risk of some thyroid diseases.

Does fluoride exposure affect thyroid function? A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis / Iamandii, Inga; De Pasquale, Lisa; Giannone, Maria Edvige; Veneri, Federica; Generali, Luigi; Consolo, Ugo; Birnbaum, Linda S; Castenmiller, Jacqueline; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Filippini, Tommaso; Vinceti, Marco. - In: ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH. - ISSN 0013-9351. - 242:(2023), pp. 1-21. [10.1016/j.envres.2023.117759]

Does fluoride exposure affect thyroid function? A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis

Iamandii, Inga;De Pasquale, Lisa;Giannone, Maria Edvige;Veneri, Federica;Generali, Luigi;Consolo, Ugo;Filippini, Tommaso;Vinceti, Marco
2023

Abstract

Introduction: Fluoride exposure may have various adverse health effects, including affecting thyroid function and disease risk, but the pattern of such relation is still uncertain. Methods: We systematically searched human studies assessing the relation between fluoride exposure and thyroid function and disease. We compared the highest versus the lowest fluoride category across these studies, and we performed a one-stage dose-response meta-analysis for aggregated data to explore the shape of the association. Results: Most retrieved studies (27 of which with a cross-sectional design) were conducted in Asia and in children, assessing fluoride exposure through its concentrations in drinking water, urine, serum, or dietary intake. Twenty-four studies reported data on thyroid function by measuring thyroid-related hormones in blood (mainly thyroid-stimulating-hormone - TSH), 9 reported data on thyroid disease, and 4 on thyroid volume. By comparing the highest versus the lowest fluoride categories, overall mean TSH difference was 1.05 μIU/mL. Dose-response curve showed no change in TSH concentrations in the lowest water fluoride exposure range, while the hormone levels started to linearly increase around 2.5 mg/L, also dependending on the risk of bias of the included studies. The association between biomarkers of fluoride exposure and TSH was also positive, with little evidence of a threshold. Evidence for an association between fluoride exposure and blood concentrations of thyroid hormones was less evident, though there was an indication of inverse association with triiodothyronine. For thyroid disease, the few available studies suggested a positive association with goiter and with hypothyroidism in both children and adults. Conclusions: Overall, exposure to high-fluoride drinking water appears to non-linearly affect thyroid function and increase TSH release in children, starting above a threshold of exposure, and to increase the risk of some thyroid diseases.
2023
242
1
21
Does fluoride exposure affect thyroid function? A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis / Iamandii, Inga; De Pasquale, Lisa; Giannone, Maria Edvige; Veneri, Federica; Generali, Luigi; Consolo, Ugo; Birnbaum, Linda S; Castenmiller, Jacqueline; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Filippini, Tommaso; Vinceti, Marco. - In: ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH. - ISSN 0013-9351. - 242:(2023), pp. 1-21. [10.1016/j.envres.2023.117759]
Iamandii, Inga; De Pasquale, Lisa; Giannone, Maria Edvige; Veneri, Federica; Generali, Luigi; Consolo, Ugo; Birnbaum, Linda S; Castenmiller, Jacqueline; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Filippini, Tommaso; Vinceti, Marco
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1328190
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