Neonatal sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Continuous evaluation of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles is advised to implement antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs and establish effective empiric antibiotic protocols. AMS may reduce AMR in NICUs and improve sepsis outcomes. In this retrospective observational study, we report data on culture-positive neonatal sepsis, assessing differences after the implementation of an AMS program (2011–2016 vs. 2017–2022). A total of 215 positive bacterial cultures from 169 infants were retrieved, with 79 early-onset (36.7%) and 136 late-onset (63.3%) sepsis episodes. Frequent causative agents for early-onset sepsis were S. agalactiae and E. coli, all susceptible to empiric treatment. Late-onset sepsis was mainly caused by Enterobacterales and S. aureus. Aminoglycosides, cefotaxime, and piperacillin-tazobactam resistance among Enterobacterales was substantially low; S. aureus was mostly susceptible to oxacillin and vancomycin. There were no differences in mortality and multidrug-resistant pathogens rates between the two study periods. There were five episodes of fungal late-onset sepsis, mostly due to C. albicans, of which one was fatal. The microbial distribution pattern and AMR profiles overlapped with other European studies. Because susceptibility patterns are rapidly changing worldwide, with the emerging threat of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producers, infection prevention and control practices and AMS strategies require continuous optimization to limit selection pressure and AMR escalation.

Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern and Empirical Antibiotic Treatments in Neonatal Sepsis: A Retrospective, Single-Center, 12-Year Study / Minotti, C.; Di Caprio, A.; Facchini, L.; Bedetti, L.; Miselli, F.; Rossi, C.; Della Casa Muttini, E.; Lugli, L.; Luppi, L.; Ferrari, F.; Berardi, A.. - In: ANTIBIOTICS. - ISSN 2079-6382. - 12:10(2023), pp. 1-13. [10.3390/antibiotics12101488]

Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern and Empirical Antibiotic Treatments in Neonatal Sepsis: A Retrospective, Single-Center, 12-Year Study

Minotti C.;Di Caprio A.;Bedetti L.;Miselli F.;Berardi A.
2023

Abstract

Neonatal sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Continuous evaluation of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles is advised to implement antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs and establish effective empiric antibiotic protocols. AMS may reduce AMR in NICUs and improve sepsis outcomes. In this retrospective observational study, we report data on culture-positive neonatal sepsis, assessing differences after the implementation of an AMS program (2011–2016 vs. 2017–2022). A total of 215 positive bacterial cultures from 169 infants were retrieved, with 79 early-onset (36.7%) and 136 late-onset (63.3%) sepsis episodes. Frequent causative agents for early-onset sepsis were S. agalactiae and E. coli, all susceptible to empiric treatment. Late-onset sepsis was mainly caused by Enterobacterales and S. aureus. Aminoglycosides, cefotaxime, and piperacillin-tazobactam resistance among Enterobacterales was substantially low; S. aureus was mostly susceptible to oxacillin and vancomycin. There were no differences in mortality and multidrug-resistant pathogens rates between the two study periods. There were five episodes of fungal late-onset sepsis, mostly due to C. albicans, of which one was fatal. The microbial distribution pattern and AMR profiles overlapped with other European studies. Because susceptibility patterns are rapidly changing worldwide, with the emerging threat of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producers, infection prevention and control practices and AMS strategies require continuous optimization to limit selection pressure and AMR escalation.
2023
12
10
1
13
Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern and Empirical Antibiotic Treatments in Neonatal Sepsis: A Retrospective, Single-Center, 12-Year Study / Minotti, C.; Di Caprio, A.; Facchini, L.; Bedetti, L.; Miselli, F.; Rossi, C.; Della Casa Muttini, E.; Lugli, L.; Luppi, L.; Ferrari, F.; Berardi, A.. - In: ANTIBIOTICS. - ISSN 2079-6382. - 12:10(2023), pp. 1-13. [10.3390/antibiotics12101488]
Minotti, C.; Di Caprio, A.; Facchini, L.; Bedetti, L.; Miselli, F.; Rossi, C.; Della Casa Muttini, E.; Lugli, L.; Luppi, L.; Ferrari, F.; Berardi, A.
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