Phosphorene, the 2D form of black phosphorus, has recently attracted interest for optoelectronic and tribological applications. However, its promising properties are affected by the strong tendency of the layers to oxidize in ambient conditions. A significant effort has been made to identify the role of oxygen and water in the oxidation process. In this work, we introduce a first-principles study of the phosphorene phase diagram and provide a quantitative estimate of the interaction of pristine and fully oxidized phosphorene layers with oxygen and water molecules. Specifically, we study oxidized layers with oxygen coverages of 25% and 50% that keep the typical anisotropic structure of the layers. We found that hydroxilated and hydrogenated phosphorene layers are both energetically unfavorable, leading to structural distortions. We also studied the water physisorption on both pristine and oxidized layers, finding that the adsorption energy gain doubled on the oxidized layers, whereas dissociative chemisorption was always energetically unfavorable. At the same time, further oxidation (i.e., the dissociative chemisorption of O (Formula presented.)) was always favorable, even on oxidized layers. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of water intercalated between sliding phosphorene layers showed that even under harsh tribological conditions water dissociation was not activated, thus further strengthening the results obtained from our static calculations. Overall, our results provide a quantitative description of the interaction of phosphorene with chemical species that are commonly found in ambient conditions at different concentrations. The phase diagram that we introduced confirms the tendency of phosphorene layers to fully oxidize due to the presence of O (Formula presented.), resulting in a material with improved hydrophilicity, a piece of information that is relevant for the application of phosphorene, e.g., as a solid lubricant. At the same time, the structural deformations found for the H- and OH- terminated layers undermine their electrical, mechanical, and tribological anisotropic properties and, therefore, the usage of phosphorene.

Interaction of Water and Oxygen Molecules with Phosphorene: An Ab Initio Study / Benini, F.; Bassoli, N.; Restuccia, P.; Ferrario, M.; Righi, M. C.. - In: MOLECULES. - ISSN 1420-3049. - 28:8(2023), pp. 1-13. [10.3390/molecules28083570]

Interaction of Water and Oxygen Molecules with Phosphorene: An Ab Initio Study

Ferrario M.;
2023

Abstract

Phosphorene, the 2D form of black phosphorus, has recently attracted interest for optoelectronic and tribological applications. However, its promising properties are affected by the strong tendency of the layers to oxidize in ambient conditions. A significant effort has been made to identify the role of oxygen and water in the oxidation process. In this work, we introduce a first-principles study of the phosphorene phase diagram and provide a quantitative estimate of the interaction of pristine and fully oxidized phosphorene layers with oxygen and water molecules. Specifically, we study oxidized layers with oxygen coverages of 25% and 50% that keep the typical anisotropic structure of the layers. We found that hydroxilated and hydrogenated phosphorene layers are both energetically unfavorable, leading to structural distortions. We also studied the water physisorption on both pristine and oxidized layers, finding that the adsorption energy gain doubled on the oxidized layers, whereas dissociative chemisorption was always energetically unfavorable. At the same time, further oxidation (i.e., the dissociative chemisorption of O (Formula presented.)) was always favorable, even on oxidized layers. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of water intercalated between sliding phosphorene layers showed that even under harsh tribological conditions water dissociation was not activated, thus further strengthening the results obtained from our static calculations. Overall, our results provide a quantitative description of the interaction of phosphorene with chemical species that are commonly found in ambient conditions at different concentrations. The phase diagram that we introduced confirms the tendency of phosphorene layers to fully oxidize due to the presence of O (Formula presented.), resulting in a material with improved hydrophilicity, a piece of information that is relevant for the application of phosphorene, e.g., as a solid lubricant. At the same time, the structural deformations found for the H- and OH- terminated layers undermine their electrical, mechanical, and tribological anisotropic properties and, therefore, the usage of phosphorene.
2023
28
8
1
13
Interaction of Water and Oxygen Molecules with Phosphorene: An Ab Initio Study / Benini, F.; Bassoli, N.; Restuccia, P.; Ferrario, M.; Righi, M. C.. - In: MOLECULES. - ISSN 1420-3049. - 28:8(2023), pp. 1-13. [10.3390/molecules28083570]
Benini, F.; Bassoli, N.; Restuccia, P.; Ferrario, M.; Righi, M. C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1324167
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