The number of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantations has increased over recent years as a result of population growth, increasing life expectancy, adoption of guidelines, and better access to healthcare. Device-related infection is, however, one of the most serious complications of CIED therapy associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and financial healthcare burden. Although many preventive strategies such as administration of intravenous antibiotic therapy before implantation are well recognized, uncertainties still exist about other regimens. Uncertainties have remained about the role of various preventive, diagnostic, and treatment measures such as skin antiseptics, pocket antibiotic solutions, anti-bacterial envelopes, prolonged antibiotics post-implantation, and others. The key aspect to successful treatment of definite CIED infections is complete removal of all parts of the system and transvenous hardware, including the device and all leads. Thus, transvenous lead extraction has been increasing. Expert consensus statements on how to prevent, diagnose, and treat CIED infections and on lead extraction have been published by the European Heart Rhythm Association in 2020 and 2018, respectively. The aim of this AIAC position paper is to describe the current knowledge on the risks for device-related infections and to assist healthcare professionals in their clinical decision making regarding its prevention, diagnosis, and management by providing the latest update of the most effective strategies.
Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of implantable electronic cardiac device infections. Position paper of the Italian Association of Arrhythmology and Cardiostimulation (AIAC) / Pisano, Ec; Mitacchione, G; Pappalardo, A; Di Grazia, A; Solimene, F; Boriani, G; Migliore, F; Curnis, A. - In: GIORNALE ITALIANO DI CARDIOLOGIA. - ISSN 1827-6806. - 24:7(2023), pp. 551-570.