Metal-halide perovskites have emerged as promising materials for optoelectronics applications, such as photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, and photodetectors due to their excellent photoconversion efficiencies. However, their instability in aqueous solutions and most organic solvents has complicated their micropatterning procedures, which are needed for dense device integration, for example, in displays or cameras. In this work, a lift-off process based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and deep ultraviolet lithography on flexible plastic foils is presented. This technique comprises simultaneous patterning of the metal-halide perovskite with a top electrode, which results in microscale vertical device architectures with high spatial resolution and alignment properties. Hence, thin-film transistors (TFTs) with methyl-ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) gate dielectrics are demonstrated for the first time. The giant dielectric constant of MAPbI3 (>1000) leads to excellent low-voltage TFT switching capabilities with subthreshold swings ≈80 mV decade−1 over ≈5 orders of drain current magnitude. Furthermore, vertically stacked low-power Au-MAPbI3-Au photodetectors with close-to-ideal linear response (R2 = 0.9997) are created. The mechanical stability down to a tensile radius of 6 mm is demonstrated for the TFTs and photodetectors, simultaneously realized on the same flexible plastic substrate. These results open the way for flexible low-power integrated (opto-)electronic systems based on metal-halide perovskites.
Metal-Halide Perovskites for Gate Dielectrics in Field-Effect Transistors and Photodetectors Enabled by PMMA Lift-Off Process / Daus, A.; Roldan-Carmona, C.; Domanski, K.; Knobelspies, S.; Cantarella, G.; Vogt, C.; Gratzel, M.; Nazeeruddin, M. K.; Troster, G.. - In: ADVANCED MATERIALS. - ISSN 0935-9648. - 30:23(2018), pp. 1707412-1707412. [10.1002/adma.201707412]