Introduction: Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal with detrimental effects on human health. Apart from smoking and occupational factors, diet is the main source of cadmium. However, the relation between adherence to so-called "healthy" dietary patterns and cadmium exposure has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we aimed at assessing such association in a Northern Italian population. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we investigated a population of non-smokers aged 30-60 years in the period 2017-2019. Each subject completed a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in order to estimate adherence to four dietary patterns, namely the Dietary Approach to Stopping Hypertension-DASH diet, Greek Mediterranean Index-GMI, the Italian Mediterranean Index-IMI, and the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet. We collected a fasting morning urinary sample to measure urinary levels of cadmium and cotinine. The association between increasing adherence to dietary patterns and cadmium exposure was evaluated using a cubic spline regression non-linear model and adjusting for relevant confounders (age, sex, body mass index, urinary cotinine levels, intake of fiber, and alcohol). Results: We recruited 137 participants (males/females: 62/75) with median (interquartile range-IQR) age of 47 (IQR: 43-53) years. Median scores for the investigated dietary patterns were 24 (IQR: 21-28), 4 (IQR: 3-6), 4 (IQR: 3-5), and 7.5 (IQR: 6.5-8.5) for DASH, GMI, IMI and MIND diets, respectively. The median urinary cadmium level was 0.21 μg/L (IQR: 0.11-0.34 μg/L). Spline regression analysis showed an inverse linear association between increasing adherence to the DASH and MIND diets and urinary cadmium levels, reaching a plateau at high adherence scores, approximately > 25 and > 9 for DASH and MIND diets, respectively. An increase of cadmium exposure with increasing MIND score also emerged. Conversely, the association was almost null for IMI, and slightly positive for GMI. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that increasing adherence to the DASH and MIND diets are associated with decreased cadmium levels only at moderate level. Overall, these results indicate that public health strategies, including the decrease of cadmium contamination in healthy foods should be implemented.

Influence of dietary patterns on urinary excretion of cadmium in an Italian population: A cross-sectional study / Urbano, Teresa; Verzelloni, Pietro; Malavolti, Marcella; Sucato, Sabrina; Polledri, Elisa; Agnoli, Claudia; Sieri, Sabina; Natalini, Nicoletta; Marchesi, Cristina; Fustinoni, Silvia; Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso. - In: JOURNAL OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY. - ISSN 1878-3252. - 80:(2023), pp. 1-8. [10.1016/j.jtemb.2023.127298]

Influence of dietary patterns on urinary excretion of cadmium in an Italian population: A cross-sectional study

Urbano, Teresa;Verzelloni, Pietro;Malavolti, Marcella;Vinceti, Marco;Filippini, Tommaso
2023

Abstract

Introduction: Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal with detrimental effects on human health. Apart from smoking and occupational factors, diet is the main source of cadmium. However, the relation between adherence to so-called "healthy" dietary patterns and cadmium exposure has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we aimed at assessing such association in a Northern Italian population. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we investigated a population of non-smokers aged 30-60 years in the period 2017-2019. Each subject completed a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in order to estimate adherence to four dietary patterns, namely the Dietary Approach to Stopping Hypertension-DASH diet, Greek Mediterranean Index-GMI, the Italian Mediterranean Index-IMI, and the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet. We collected a fasting morning urinary sample to measure urinary levels of cadmium and cotinine. The association between increasing adherence to dietary patterns and cadmium exposure was evaluated using a cubic spline regression non-linear model and adjusting for relevant confounders (age, sex, body mass index, urinary cotinine levels, intake of fiber, and alcohol). Results: We recruited 137 participants (males/females: 62/75) with median (interquartile range-IQR) age of 47 (IQR: 43-53) years. Median scores for the investigated dietary patterns were 24 (IQR: 21-28), 4 (IQR: 3-6), 4 (IQR: 3-5), and 7.5 (IQR: 6.5-8.5) for DASH, GMI, IMI and MIND diets, respectively. The median urinary cadmium level was 0.21 μg/L (IQR: 0.11-0.34 μg/L). Spline regression analysis showed an inverse linear association between increasing adherence to the DASH and MIND diets and urinary cadmium levels, reaching a plateau at high adherence scores, approximately > 25 and > 9 for DASH and MIND diets, respectively. An increase of cadmium exposure with increasing MIND score also emerged. Conversely, the association was almost null for IMI, and slightly positive for GMI. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that increasing adherence to the DASH and MIND diets are associated with decreased cadmium levels only at moderate level. Overall, these results indicate that public health strategies, including the decrease of cadmium contamination in healthy foods should be implemented.
2023
80
1
8
Influence of dietary patterns on urinary excretion of cadmium in an Italian population: A cross-sectional study / Urbano, Teresa; Verzelloni, Pietro; Malavolti, Marcella; Sucato, Sabrina; Polledri, Elisa; Agnoli, Claudia; Sieri, Sabina; Natalini, Nicoletta; Marchesi, Cristina; Fustinoni, Silvia; Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso. - In: JOURNAL OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY. - ISSN 1878-3252. - 80:(2023), pp. 1-8. [10.1016/j.jtemb.2023.127298]
Urbano, Teresa; Verzelloni, Pietro; Malavolti, Marcella; Sucato, Sabrina; Polledri, Elisa; Agnoli, Claudia; Sieri, Sabina; Natalini, Nicoletta; Marchesi, Cristina; Fustinoni, Silvia; Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1319126
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