Background. The incidence of infections and death in patients implanted with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is not fully known yet. Aim. To describe the incidence of CIED-related infection and death, and their potential predictors in a contemporary cohort of CIED patients. Methods. All consecutive patients implanted with a CIED at our institution were prospectively enrolled. Follow-up visits were performed 2 weeks after CIED implantation for all patients, and then every 6 months for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)/cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) patients and every 12 months for pacemaker (PM) patients. The adjudication of CIED-related infections was performed by two independent investigators and potential disagreement was resolved by a senior investigator. Results. Between September 2016 and August 2020, a total of 838 patients were enrolled (34.6% female; median age 77 (69.6–83.6); median PADIT score 2 (2–4)). PMs were implanted in 569 (68%) patients and ICD/CRT in 269 (32%) patients. All patients had pre-implant antibiotic prophylaxis and 5.5% had an antibiotic-eluting envelope. Follow-up data were available for 832 (99.2%) patients. After a median follow-up of 42.3 (30.2–56.4) months, five (0.6%) patients had a CIED-related infection and 212 (25.5%) patients died. Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) requiring dialysis and therapy with corticosteroids was independently associated with a higher risk of infection (hazard ratio (HR): 14.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48–136.62 and HR: 14.71; 95% CI 1.53–141.53, respectively). Age (HR: 1.07; 95% CI 1.05–1.09), end-stage CKD requiring dialysis (HR: 6.13; 95% CI 3.38–11.13) and history of atrial fibrillation (HR: 1.47; 95% CI 1.12–1.94) were independently associated with all-cause death. Conclusions. In a contemporary cohort of CIED patients, mortality was substantially high and associated with clinical factors depicting a population at risk. On the other hand, the incidence of CIED-related infections was low.

Low Occurrence of Infections and Death in a Real-World Cohort of Patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices / Imberti, J. F.; Mei, D. A.; Fontanesi, R.; Gerra, L.; Bonini, N.; Vitolo, M.; Turco, V.; Casali, E.; Boriani, G.. - In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 2077-0383. - 12:7(2023), pp. 1-12. [10.3390/jcm12072599]

Low Occurrence of Infections and Death in a Real-World Cohort of Patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices

Imberti J. F.;Mei D. A.;Gerra L.;Bonini N.;Vitolo M.;Boriani G.
2023

Abstract

Background. The incidence of infections and death in patients implanted with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is not fully known yet. Aim. To describe the incidence of CIED-related infection and death, and their potential predictors in a contemporary cohort of CIED patients. Methods. All consecutive patients implanted with a CIED at our institution were prospectively enrolled. Follow-up visits were performed 2 weeks after CIED implantation for all patients, and then every 6 months for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)/cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) patients and every 12 months for pacemaker (PM) patients. The adjudication of CIED-related infections was performed by two independent investigators and potential disagreement was resolved by a senior investigator. Results. Between September 2016 and August 2020, a total of 838 patients were enrolled (34.6% female; median age 77 (69.6–83.6); median PADIT score 2 (2–4)). PMs were implanted in 569 (68%) patients and ICD/CRT in 269 (32%) patients. All patients had pre-implant antibiotic prophylaxis and 5.5% had an antibiotic-eluting envelope. Follow-up data were available for 832 (99.2%) patients. After a median follow-up of 42.3 (30.2–56.4) months, five (0.6%) patients had a CIED-related infection and 212 (25.5%) patients died. Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) requiring dialysis and therapy with corticosteroids was independently associated with a higher risk of infection (hazard ratio (HR): 14.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48–136.62 and HR: 14.71; 95% CI 1.53–141.53, respectively). Age (HR: 1.07; 95% CI 1.05–1.09), end-stage CKD requiring dialysis (HR: 6.13; 95% CI 3.38–11.13) and history of atrial fibrillation (HR: 1.47; 95% CI 1.12–1.94) were independently associated with all-cause death. Conclusions. In a contemporary cohort of CIED patients, mortality was substantially high and associated with clinical factors depicting a population at risk. On the other hand, the incidence of CIED-related infections was low.
2023
12
7
1
12
Low Occurrence of Infections and Death in a Real-World Cohort of Patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices / Imberti, J. F.; Mei, D. A.; Fontanesi, R.; Gerra, L.; Bonini, N.; Vitolo, M.; Turco, V.; Casali, E.; Boriani, G.. - In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 2077-0383. - 12:7(2023), pp. 1-12. [10.3390/jcm12072599]
Imberti, J. F.; Mei, D. A.; Fontanesi, R.; Gerra, L.; Bonini, N.; Vitolo, M.; Turco, V.; Casali, E.; Boriani, G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1312670
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