: Midostaurin is used in combination with chemotherapy to treat patients with newly diagnosed FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia exposes these patients to a significant risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). International guidelines recommend primary antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole (PCZ) but nested analysis of a phase III trial showed that strong PCZ inhibition of CYP3A4 diminished midostaurin metabolism and increased midostaurin plasma levels; however, midostaurin-related adverse events (AEs) were only moderately exacerbated. We conducted a prospective multicenter real-life study to evaluate (i) how often concerns around PCZ-midostaurin interactions made the hematologist prescribe antifungals other than PCZ, (ii) how remarkably PCZ increased midostaurin plasma levels, and (iii) how significantly PCZ-midostaurin interactions influenced hematologic and safety outcomes of induction therapy. Although the hematologists were blinded to pharmacokinetic findings, as many as 16 of 35 evaluable patients were prescribed antifungal prophylaxis with micafungin, weak CYP3A4 inhibitor, in place of PCZ (p < 0.001 for deviation from guidelines). In the 19 patients managed as per guidelines, PCZ-midostaurin interactions were more remarkable than previously characterized, such that at the end of induction therapy midostaurin minimum plasma concentration (Cmin ) was greater than three times higher than reported; moreover, midostaurin Cmin , maximum plasma concentration, and area under the curve were more than or equal to four times higher with PCZ than micafungin. Hematologic outcomes (complete remission and duration of severe neutropenia) and safety outcomes (midostaurin-related any grade or grade ≥3 AEs) were nonetheless similar for patients exposed to PCZ or micafungin, as was the number of breakthrough IFIs. In waiting for randomized phase III trials of new prophylaxis regimens, these findings show that PCZ should remain the antifungal of choice for the midostaurin-treated patient.

Posaconazole and midostaurin in patients with FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia: Pharmacokinetic interactions and clinical facts in a real life study / Menna, Pierantonio; Marchesi, Francesco; Cattaneo, Chiara; Candoni, Anna; Delia, Mario; Nadali, Gianpaolo; Vatteroni, Alessandra; Pasciolla, Crescenza; Perrone, Salvatore; Verga, Luisa; Armiento, Daniele; Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Fracchiolla, Nicola S; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Lupisella, Santina; Terrenato, Irene; Busca, Alessandro; Minotti, Giorgio; Pagano, Livio. - In: CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE. - ISSN 1752-8054. - (2023), pp. 1-10. [10.1111/cts.13595]

Posaconazole and midostaurin in patients with FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia: Pharmacokinetic interactions and clinical facts in a real life study

Candoni, Anna;
2023

Abstract

: Midostaurin is used in combination with chemotherapy to treat patients with newly diagnosed FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia exposes these patients to a significant risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). International guidelines recommend primary antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole (PCZ) but nested analysis of a phase III trial showed that strong PCZ inhibition of CYP3A4 diminished midostaurin metabolism and increased midostaurin plasma levels; however, midostaurin-related adverse events (AEs) were only moderately exacerbated. We conducted a prospective multicenter real-life study to evaluate (i) how often concerns around PCZ-midostaurin interactions made the hematologist prescribe antifungals other than PCZ, (ii) how remarkably PCZ increased midostaurin plasma levels, and (iii) how significantly PCZ-midostaurin interactions influenced hematologic and safety outcomes of induction therapy. Although the hematologists were blinded to pharmacokinetic findings, as many as 16 of 35 evaluable patients were prescribed antifungal prophylaxis with micafungin, weak CYP3A4 inhibitor, in place of PCZ (p < 0.001 for deviation from guidelines). In the 19 patients managed as per guidelines, PCZ-midostaurin interactions were more remarkable than previously characterized, such that at the end of induction therapy midostaurin minimum plasma concentration (Cmin ) was greater than three times higher than reported; moreover, midostaurin Cmin , maximum plasma concentration, and area under the curve were more than or equal to four times higher with PCZ than micafungin. Hematologic outcomes (complete remission and duration of severe neutropenia) and safety outcomes (midostaurin-related any grade or grade ≥3 AEs) were nonetheless similar for patients exposed to PCZ or micafungin, as was the number of breakthrough IFIs. In waiting for randomized phase III trials of new prophylaxis regimens, these findings show that PCZ should remain the antifungal of choice for the midostaurin-treated patient.
2023
1
10
Posaconazole and midostaurin in patients with FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia: Pharmacokinetic interactions and clinical facts in a real life study / Menna, Pierantonio; Marchesi, Francesco; Cattaneo, Chiara; Candoni, Anna; Delia, Mario; Nadali, Gianpaolo; Vatteroni, Alessandra; Pasciolla, Crescenza; Perrone, Salvatore; Verga, Luisa; Armiento, Daniele; Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Fracchiolla, Nicola S; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Lupisella, Santina; Terrenato, Irene; Busca, Alessandro; Minotti, Giorgio; Pagano, Livio. - In: CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE. - ISSN 1752-8054. - (2023), pp. 1-10. [10.1111/cts.13595]
Menna, Pierantonio; Marchesi, Francesco; Cattaneo, Chiara; Candoni, Anna; Delia, Mario; Nadali, Gianpaolo; Vatteroni, Alessandra; Pasciolla, Crescenza; Perrone, Salvatore; Verga, Luisa; Armiento, Daniele; Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Fracchiolla, Nicola S; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Lupisella, Santina; Terrenato, Irene; Busca, Alessandro; Minotti, Giorgio; Pagano, Livio
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