Background Dementia is a neurological syndrome characterized by severe cognitive impairment with functional impact on everyday life. It can be classified as young onset dementia (EOD) in case of symptom onset before 65, and late onset dementia (LOD). The purpose of this study is to assess the risk of dementia due to light pollution, and specifically outdoor artificial light at night (LAN). Methods Using a case-control design, we enrolled dementia patients newly-diagnosed in the province of Modena in the period 2017–2019 and a referent population from their caregivers. We geo-referenced the address of residence on the date of recruitment, provided it was stable for the previous five years. We assessed LAN exposure through 2015 nighttime luminance satellite images from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). Using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and education, we calculated the risk of dementia associated with increasing LAN exposure, namely using <10 nW/cm2/sr as reference and considering ≥10-<40 nW/cm2/sr intermediate and ≥40 nW/cm2/sr high exposure, respectively We also implemented non-linear assessment using a spline regression model. Results We recruited 58 EOD cases, 34 LOD cases and 54 controls. Average LAN exposure levels overlapped for EOD cases and controls, while LOD cases showed higher levels. Compared with the lowest exposure, the risk of EOD associated with LAN was higher in the intermediate exposure (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 0.54–3.39), but not in the high exposure category (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.32–3.34). In contrast, the risk of LOD was positively associated with LAN exposure, with ORs of 2.58 (95% CI 0.26–25.97) and 3.50 (95% CI 0.32–38.87) in the intermediate and high exposure categories, respectively. The spline regression analysis showed substantial lack of association between LAN and EOD, while almost linear although highly imprecise association emerged for LOD. Conclusions Although the precision of the estimates was affected by the limited sample size and the study design did not allow us to exclude the presence of residual confounding, these results suggest a possible role of LAN in the etiology of dementia, particularly of its late-onset form.

Outdoor artificial light at night and risk of early-onset dementia: A case-control study in the Modena population, Northern Italy / Mazzoleni, E.; Vinceti, M.; Costanzini, S.; Garuti, C.; Adani, G.; Vinceti, G.; Zamboni, G.; Tondelli, M.; Galli, C.; Salemme, S.; Teggi, S.; Chiari, A.; Filippini, T.. - In: HELIYON. - ISSN 2405-8440. - 9:7(2023), pp. 1-11. [10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e17837]

Outdoor artificial light at night and risk of early-onset dementia: A case-control study in the Modena population, Northern Italy

Mazzoleni E.;Vinceti M.;Costanzini S.;Garuti C.;Adani G.;Vinceti G.;Zamboni G.;Tondelli M.;Salemme S.;Teggi S.;Chiari A.;Filippini T.
2023

Abstract

Background Dementia is a neurological syndrome characterized by severe cognitive impairment with functional impact on everyday life. It can be classified as young onset dementia (EOD) in case of symptom onset before 65, and late onset dementia (LOD). The purpose of this study is to assess the risk of dementia due to light pollution, and specifically outdoor artificial light at night (LAN). Methods Using a case-control design, we enrolled dementia patients newly-diagnosed in the province of Modena in the period 2017–2019 and a referent population from their caregivers. We geo-referenced the address of residence on the date of recruitment, provided it was stable for the previous five years. We assessed LAN exposure through 2015 nighttime luminance satellite images from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). Using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and education, we calculated the risk of dementia associated with increasing LAN exposure, namely using <10 nW/cm2/sr as reference and considering ≥10-<40 nW/cm2/sr intermediate and ≥40 nW/cm2/sr high exposure, respectively We also implemented non-linear assessment using a spline regression model. Results We recruited 58 EOD cases, 34 LOD cases and 54 controls. Average LAN exposure levels overlapped for EOD cases and controls, while LOD cases showed higher levels. Compared with the lowest exposure, the risk of EOD associated with LAN was higher in the intermediate exposure (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 0.54–3.39), but not in the high exposure category (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.32–3.34). In contrast, the risk of LOD was positively associated with LAN exposure, with ORs of 2.58 (95% CI 0.26–25.97) and 3.50 (95% CI 0.32–38.87) in the intermediate and high exposure categories, respectively. The spline regression analysis showed substantial lack of association between LAN and EOD, while almost linear although highly imprecise association emerged for LOD. Conclusions Although the precision of the estimates was affected by the limited sample size and the study design did not allow us to exclude the presence of residual confounding, these results suggest a possible role of LAN in the etiology of dementia, particularly of its late-onset form.
2023
9
7
1
11
Outdoor artificial light at night and risk of early-onset dementia: A case-control study in the Modena population, Northern Italy / Mazzoleni, E.; Vinceti, M.; Costanzini, S.; Garuti, C.; Adani, G.; Vinceti, G.; Zamboni, G.; Tondelli, M.; Galli, C.; Salemme, S.; Teggi, S.; Chiari, A.; Filippini, T.. - In: HELIYON. - ISSN 2405-8440. - 9:7(2023), pp. 1-11. [10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e17837]
Mazzoleni, E.; Vinceti, M.; Costanzini, S.; Garuti, C.; Adani, G.; Vinceti, G.; Zamboni, G.; Tondelli, M.; Galli, C.; Salemme, S.; Teggi, S.; Chiari, A.; Filippini, T.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1310787
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