After decades of research efforts, wind-wave interaction mechanisms have been recognized as extremely elusive. The reason is the complex nature of the problem, which combines complex coupling mechanisms between turbulent wind and water waves with the presence of multiple governing parameters, such as the friction Reynolds number of the wind, the water depth and the wind fetch. As shown unequivocally here, the use of suitable flow settings allows us to reduce the complex problem of wind-wave interaction to its essential features, mainly as a function of the sole friction Reynolds number of the wind. The resulting numerical solution allows us to study the interactions between water and air layers with their own fluid properties, and to unveil very interesting features, such as an oblique wave pattern travelling upstream and a wave-induced Stokes sublayer. The latter is responsible for a drag reduction mechanism in the turbulent wind. Despite the simulated flow conditions being far from the intense events occurring at the ocean-atmosphere interface, the basic flow phenomena unveiled here may explain some experimental evidence in wind-wave problems. Among other things, the wave-induced Stokes sublayer may shed light on the large scatter of the drag coefficient data in field measurements where swell waves of arbitrary directions are often present. Hence the present results and the developed approach pave the way for the understanding and modelling of the surface fluxes at the ocean-atmosphere interface, which are of overwhelming importance for climate science.

On wind-wave interaction phenomena at low Reynolds numbers / Cimarelli, A.; Romoli, F.; Stalio, E.. - In: JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS. - ISSN 1469-7645. - 956:(2023), pp. 1-27. [10.1017/jfm.2023.4]

On wind-wave interaction phenomena at low Reynolds numbers

Cimarelli A.
;
Romoli F.;Stalio E.
2023

Abstract

After decades of research efforts, wind-wave interaction mechanisms have been recognized as extremely elusive. The reason is the complex nature of the problem, which combines complex coupling mechanisms between turbulent wind and water waves with the presence of multiple governing parameters, such as the friction Reynolds number of the wind, the water depth and the wind fetch. As shown unequivocally here, the use of suitable flow settings allows us to reduce the complex problem of wind-wave interaction to its essential features, mainly as a function of the sole friction Reynolds number of the wind. The resulting numerical solution allows us to study the interactions between water and air layers with their own fluid properties, and to unveil very interesting features, such as an oblique wave pattern travelling upstream and a wave-induced Stokes sublayer. The latter is responsible for a drag reduction mechanism in the turbulent wind. Despite the simulated flow conditions being far from the intense events occurring at the ocean-atmosphere interface, the basic flow phenomena unveiled here may explain some experimental evidence in wind-wave problems. Among other things, the wave-induced Stokes sublayer may shed light on the large scatter of the drag coefficient data in field measurements where swell waves of arbitrary directions are often present. Hence the present results and the developed approach pave the way for the understanding and modelling of the surface fluxes at the ocean-atmosphere interface, which are of overwhelming importance for climate science.
2023
956
1
27
On wind-wave interaction phenomena at low Reynolds numbers / Cimarelli, A.; Romoli, F.; Stalio, E.. - In: JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS. - ISSN 1469-7645. - 956:(2023), pp. 1-27. [10.1017/jfm.2023.4]
Cimarelli, A.; Romoli, F.; Stalio, E.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1304326
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