Rare cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa community-acquired pneumonia (PA-CAP) were reported in non-immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) necrotizing cavitary CAP with a fatal outcome in a 53-year-old man previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, who was admitted for dyspnea, fever, cough, hemoptysis, acute respiratory failure and a right upper lobe opacification. Six hours after admission, despite effective antibiotic therapy, he experienced multi-organ failure and died. Autopsy confirmed necrotizing pneumonia with alveolar hemorrhage. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures were positive for PA serotype O:9 belonging to ST1184. The strain shares the same virulence factor profile with reference genome PA01. With the aim to better investigate the clinical and molecular characteristics of PA-CAP, we considered the literature of the last 13 years concerning this topic. The prevalence of hospitalized PA-CAP is about 4% and has a mortality rate of 33–66%. Smoking, alcohol abuse and contaminated fluid exposure were the recognized risk factors; most cases presented the same symptoms described above and needed intensive care. Co-infection of PA-influenza A is described, which is possibly caused by influenza-inducing respiratory epithelial cell dysfunction: the same pathophysiological mechanism could be assumed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Considering the high rate of fatal outcomes, additional studies are needed to identify sources of infections and new risk factors, along with genetic and immunological features. Current CAP guidelines should be revised in light of these results.

A Fatal Case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Community-Acquired Pneumonia in an Immunocompetent Patient: Clinical and Molecular Characterization and Literature Review / Barp, Nicole; Marcacci, Matteo; Biagioni, Emanuela; Serio, Lucia; Busani, Stefano; Ventura, Paolo; Franceschini, Erica; Orlando, Gabriella; Venturelli, Claudia; Menozzi, Ilaria; Tambassi, Martina; Scaltriti, Erika; Pongolini, Stefano; Sarti, Mario; Pietrangelo, Antonello; Girardis, Massimo; Mussini, Cristina; Meschiari, Marianna. - In: MICROORGANISMS. - ISSN 2076-2607. - 11:5(2023), pp. 1112-1125. [10.3390/microorganisms11051112]

A Fatal Case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Community-Acquired Pneumonia in an Immunocompetent Patient: Clinical and Molecular Characterization and Literature Review

Barp, Nicole;Marcacci, Matteo;Biagioni, Emanuela;Busani, Stefano;Ventura, Paolo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Franceschini, Erica;Orlando, Gabriella;Pietrangelo, Antonello;Girardis, Massimo;Mussini, Cristina;Meschiari, Marianna
2023

Abstract

Rare cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa community-acquired pneumonia (PA-CAP) were reported in non-immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) necrotizing cavitary CAP with a fatal outcome in a 53-year-old man previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, who was admitted for dyspnea, fever, cough, hemoptysis, acute respiratory failure and a right upper lobe opacification. Six hours after admission, despite effective antibiotic therapy, he experienced multi-organ failure and died. Autopsy confirmed necrotizing pneumonia with alveolar hemorrhage. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures were positive for PA serotype O:9 belonging to ST1184. The strain shares the same virulence factor profile with reference genome PA01. With the aim to better investigate the clinical and molecular characteristics of PA-CAP, we considered the literature of the last 13 years concerning this topic. The prevalence of hospitalized PA-CAP is about 4% and has a mortality rate of 33–66%. Smoking, alcohol abuse and contaminated fluid exposure were the recognized risk factors; most cases presented the same symptoms described above and needed intensive care. Co-infection of PA-influenza A is described, which is possibly caused by influenza-inducing respiratory epithelial cell dysfunction: the same pathophysiological mechanism could be assumed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Considering the high rate of fatal outcomes, additional studies are needed to identify sources of infections and new risk factors, along with genetic and immunological features. Current CAP guidelines should be revised in light of these results.
2023
24-apr-2023
11
5
1112
1125
A Fatal Case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Community-Acquired Pneumonia in an Immunocompetent Patient: Clinical and Molecular Characterization and Literature Review / Barp, Nicole; Marcacci, Matteo; Biagioni, Emanuela; Serio, Lucia; Busani, Stefano; Ventura, Paolo; Franceschini, Erica; Orlando, Gabriella; Venturelli, Claudia; Menozzi, Ilaria; Tambassi, Martina; Scaltriti, Erika; Pongolini, Stefano; Sarti, Mario; Pietrangelo, Antonello; Girardis, Massimo; Mussini, Cristina; Meschiari, Marianna. - In: MICROORGANISMS. - ISSN 2076-2607. - 11:5(2023), pp. 1112-1125. [10.3390/microorganisms11051112]
Barp, Nicole; Marcacci, Matteo; Biagioni, Emanuela; Serio, Lucia; Busani, Stefano; Ventura, Paolo; Franceschini, Erica; Orlando, Gabriella; Venturelli, Claudia; Menozzi, Ilaria; Tambassi, Martina; Scaltriti, Erika; Pongolini, Stefano; Sarti, Mario; Pietrangelo, Antonello; Girardis, Massimo; Mussini, Cristina; Meschiari, Marianna
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