PURPOSE High levels of circulating tumor plasma cells (CTC-high) in patients with multiple myeloma are a marker of aggressive disease. We aimed to confirm the prognostic impact and identify a possible cutoff value of CTC-high for the prediction of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), in the context of concomitant risk features and minimal residual disease (MRD) achievement.METHODS. CTC were analyzed at diagnosis with two-tube single-platform flow cytometry (sensitivity 4 x 10(-5)) in patients enrolled in the multicenter randomized FORTE clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02203643). MRD was assessed by second-generation multipara meter flow cytometry (sensitivity 10(-5)). We tested different cutoff values in series of multivariate (MV) Cox proportional hazards regression analyses on PFS outcome and selected the value that maximized the Harrell's C-statistic. We analyzed the impact of CTC on PFS and OS in a MV analysis including baseline features and MRD negativity.RESULTS CTC analysis was performed in 401 patients; the median follow-up was 50 months (interquartile range, 45-54 months). There was a modest correlation between the percentage of CTC and bone marrow plasma cells (r = 0.38). We identified an optimal CTC cutoff of 0.07% (approximately 5 cells/mu L, C-index 0.64). In MV analysis, CTC-high versus CTC-low patients had significantly shorter PFS (hazard ratio, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.49 to 2.97, P < .001; 4-year PFS 38% v69%) and OS (hazard ratio, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.49 to 4.56; P < .001; 4-year OS 68% v92%). The CTC levels, but not the bone marrow plasma cell levels, affected the outcome. The only factor that reduced the negative impact of CTC-high was the achievement of MRD negativity (interaction P = .039).CONCLUSION In multiple myeloma, increasing levels of CTC above an optimal cutoff represent an easy-to-assess, robust, and independent high-risk factor. The achievement of MRD negativity is the most important factor that modulates their negative prognostic impact. (C) 2022 by American Society of Clinical Oncology

High Levels of Circulating Tumor Plasma Cells as a Key Hallmark of Aggressive Disease in Transplant-Eligible Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma / Bertamini, L.; Oliva, S.; Rota-Scalabrini, D.; Paris, L.; More, S.; Corradini, P.; Ledda, A.; Gentile, M.; De Sabbata, G.; Pietrantuono, G.; Pascarella, A.; Tosi, P.; Curci, P.; Gilestro, M.; Capra, A.; Galieni, P.; Pisani, F.; Annibali, O.; Monaco, F.; Liberati, A. M.; Palmieri, S.; Luppi, M.; Zambello, R.; Fazio, F.; Belotti, A.; Tacchetti, P.; Musto, P.; Boccadoro, M.; Gay, F.. - In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. - ISSN 1527-7755. - 30:27(2022), pp. 3120-3131. [10.1200/JCO.21.01393]

High Levels of Circulating Tumor Plasma Cells as a Key Hallmark of Aggressive Disease in Transplant-Eligible Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma

Corradini P.;De Sabbata G.;Curci P.;Liberati A. M.;Luppi M.;Fazio F.;
2022

Abstract

PURPOSE High levels of circulating tumor plasma cells (CTC-high) in patients with multiple myeloma are a marker of aggressive disease. We aimed to confirm the prognostic impact and identify a possible cutoff value of CTC-high for the prediction of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), in the context of concomitant risk features and minimal residual disease (MRD) achievement.METHODS. CTC were analyzed at diagnosis with two-tube single-platform flow cytometry (sensitivity 4 x 10(-5)) in patients enrolled in the multicenter randomized FORTE clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02203643). MRD was assessed by second-generation multipara meter flow cytometry (sensitivity 10(-5)). We tested different cutoff values in series of multivariate (MV) Cox proportional hazards regression analyses on PFS outcome and selected the value that maximized the Harrell's C-statistic. We analyzed the impact of CTC on PFS and OS in a MV analysis including baseline features and MRD negativity.RESULTS CTC analysis was performed in 401 patients; the median follow-up was 50 months (interquartile range, 45-54 months). There was a modest correlation between the percentage of CTC and bone marrow plasma cells (r = 0.38). We identified an optimal CTC cutoff of 0.07% (approximately 5 cells/mu L, C-index 0.64). In MV analysis, CTC-high versus CTC-low patients had significantly shorter PFS (hazard ratio, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.49 to 2.97, P < .001; 4-year PFS 38% v69%) and OS (hazard ratio, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.49 to 4.56; P < .001; 4-year OS 68% v92%). The CTC levels, but not the bone marrow plasma cell levels, affected the outcome. The only factor that reduced the negative impact of CTC-high was the achievement of MRD negativity (interaction P = .039).CONCLUSION In multiple myeloma, increasing levels of CTC above an optimal cutoff represent an easy-to-assess, robust, and independent high-risk factor. The achievement of MRD negativity is the most important factor that modulates their negative prognostic impact. (C) 2022 by American Society of Clinical Oncology
2022
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27
3120
3131
High Levels of Circulating Tumor Plasma Cells as a Key Hallmark of Aggressive Disease in Transplant-Eligible Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma / Bertamini, L.; Oliva, S.; Rota-Scalabrini, D.; Paris, L.; More, S.; Corradini, P.; Ledda, A.; Gentile, M.; De Sabbata, G.; Pietrantuono, G.; Pascarella, A.; Tosi, P.; Curci, P.; Gilestro, M.; Capra, A.; Galieni, P.; Pisani, F.; Annibali, O.; Monaco, F.; Liberati, A. M.; Palmieri, S.; Luppi, M.; Zambello, R.; Fazio, F.; Belotti, A.; Tacchetti, P.; Musto, P.; Boccadoro, M.; Gay, F.. - In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. - ISSN 1527-7755. - 30:27(2022), pp. 3120-3131. [10.1200/JCO.21.01393]
Bertamini, L.; Oliva, S.; Rota-Scalabrini, D.; Paris, L.; More, S.; Corradini, P.; Ledda, A.; Gentile, M.; De Sabbata, G.; Pietrantuono, G.; Pascarella, A.; Tosi, P.; Curci, P.; Gilestro, M.; Capra, A.; Galieni, P.; Pisani, F.; Annibali, O.; Monaco, F.; Liberati, A. M.; Palmieri, S.; Luppi, M.; Zambello, R.; Fazio, F.; Belotti, A.; Tacchetti, P.; Musto, P.; Boccadoro, M.; Gay, F.
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